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E-reader

Reading electronic books, also called e-book or e-book device, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for reading digital ebooks and periodicals.
Any device that can display text on the screen can act as a reader, but specialized e-book devices may optimize portability, readability and battery life for this purpose. Their main advantages over printed books are portable, as an e-reader can accommodate thousands of books and weigh less than one book, but convenience is ensured by additional functions.

1. Overview. (Обзор)
E-reader is a device that is designed as a convenient way to read e-books. It is similar in form factor to a tablet computer, but the characteristics of e-ink, not LCD screen. This gives a much longer battery life - the battery can last for several weeks - and better readability like paper even in sunlight. The disadvantages of this type of display include the slow refresh rate and, as a rule, in the grayscale-only display, which makes it unsuitable for sophisticated interactive apps for tablets. The absence of such applications may be perceived as an advantage because the user can more easily concentrate on reading.
The Sony Librie, released in 2004, and the predecessor of the Sony reader, the first e-reader uses electronic paper. The ectaco jetBook color was the first color e-reader on the market, but its muted colors have been criticized.
Many e-readers can surf the Internet via Wi-Fi and built-in software may contain a link to the digital open publication distribution system BZP-library or ebook retailer that will let the user to buy, borrow, and receive digital e-books. E-reader can also download e-books from your computer or read them from the memory card. However, the use of memory cards is reduced as most of the 2010s years of the age of the readers the lack of card slot.

2. History. (История)
The idea is similar to the electronic book described in a 1930 Manifesto written by Bob brown, called Cash, which describes "a simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred thousand word novels in 10 minutes". His hypothetical machine would use a microfilm-style ribbon of miniature text that can be scrolled past a magnifying glass, and would allow the reader to change the font size. He assumed that eventually words could be "recorded directly on the palpitating ether".
The creation of the E Ink Corporation in 1997 led to the development of e-paper is a technology that allows the screen to reflect light like ordinary paper with no backlight. The rocket book was the first commercial e-books, and several others were introduced around 1998, but has not received wide acceptance. Electronic paper was included in the Sony Librie, which was released in 2004 and the Sony Reader in 2006 and Amazon kindle, a device that, after its release in 2007, sold out within five and a half hours. The Kindle includes access to the Kindle Store for ebook sales and delivery.
In 2009, new marketing models for e-books are being developed and a new generation of reading hardware was produced. E-books vs e-books yet to achieve global distribution. In the United States, as of September 2009, the Amazon kindle model and Sonys PRS-500 were the dominant e-reading devices. By March 2010, some reported that the Barnes & noble nook may be selling more units than the kindle in the us.
According to research published in March 2011 indicated that e-books and E-readers were more popular among the older generation than the younger generation in the UK. A study conducted by Silver poll found that around 6% of people over 55 owned e-reader compared with just 5% of 18 to 24-year-old. According to the IDC study in March 2011, sales for all e-readers worldwide rose to 12.8 million In 2010, 48% of them Amazon kindle, then Barnes & noble nooks, Pandigital, and Sony readers about 800.000 units for 2010.
On January 27, 2010 By Apple. launched multi-functional tablet computer called the iPad and announced agreements with five of the six largest publishers that would allow Apple to distribute e-books. The iPad has a built-in application for reading e-books called iBooks and the iBookstore for content sales and delivery. IPad, the first commercially profitable tablet, followed by the 2011 release of the first Android-tablet, LCD tablet versions of Nook and Kindle. Unlike previous e-readers, tablet computers are multi-functional, use LCD touchscreen displays, and are more dependent on e-book app provider that allows you to install multiple e-reader applications. Many tablets Android OS to take external drives and allows you to download files directly to the file system of the tablet without resorting to online stores or cloud services. Many tablets and smartphones readers can display PDF and DjVu files, which specialized readers can handle. This opens up the possibility to read the publications first published on paper and then scanned into a digital format. Although these files cannot be considered e-books in the strict sense, they retain the original printed form. The growth of General purpose tablets are allowed for further growth of popularity of electronic books in 2010-ies.
In 2012 there was 26% decline in worldwide sales of more than 23.2 million In 2011. The official reason was "frighteningly rapid decline" was a more General purpose tablets that provide e-book reading apps, along with many other abilities in a similar form factor. In 2013, abi research claimed that the decline in the market of e-readers has been associated with aging client base. In 2014, the industry reported e-book sales worldwide will total about 12 million people, only Amazon.com and Kobo Inc. in the distribution of electronic books around the world and various regional distribution Barnes & noble US / UK, Tolino Germany, the Netherlands Icarus, PocketBook International Eastern Europe and Russia, and the Onyx BOOX China and Vietnam. At the end of 2015, according to estimates from eMarketer, which was 83.4 million e-books, users in the United States, with the number forecast to grow 3.5% in 2016. At the end of 2014, PricewaterhouseCoopers predicted that by 2018 e-books will account for more than 50% of the total income of the consumer publishing in the US and the UK, while at the same time, e-books, more than 30% share of revenues.
Until the end of 2013, the use of the e-reader was not permitted in the aircraft during takeoff and landing. In November 2013, the FAA allowed use of e-books on airplanes at all times if the mode is set to "airplane" that turns all the way. European authorities to use this guidance the next month.

3. Ebook reader applications. (Приложения для чтения электронных книг)
Many large bookstores and third-party developers offer e-reader applications for desktop computers, tablets and mobile devices to allow reading e-books and other documents, independent dedicated e-book on different devices. Ebook reader applications are available for Mac and PC and also for Android, iOS and Windows Phone devices.

4. Effect. (Эффект)
The introduction of e-books has brought about significant changes in the publishing industry, also awakening the fears and predictions about the possible disappearance of books and periodicals.

5. Criticism. (Критика)
Graphic design of the book is the format and the technical limitations of e-readers because E-Ink readers do not support color displays, and they have a limited resolution and size. The reading experience on e-ink displays, which are not back illuminated depends on the lighting conditions.
E-readers, as a rule, is only access to the online store of a single vendor. This structure is called a digital ecosystem, and helps small companies, for example, Kibano by Digireader to compete with international companies. On the other hand, customers have the opportunity to purchase books with e-books in the online store by e-reader and therefore do not have the opportunity of buying e-books on the open market. Due to the use of ecosystems, companies are not forced to compete with each other and, consequently, the ebooks price will not decrease. The only option through the online store, social interaction buying or borrowing the book disappears.
In the EU, production of media, including paper books, frequent tax cuts. Therefore VAT for ordinary books is often lower than that of electronic books. From a legal point of view, ebooks are considered a service. To purchase the E-book is regarded as a temporary lease of the goods. On the other hand, conventional books are considered as a product. Thus, the prices of e-books is often similar to paper books, even if the production of the book has a lower cost.
Many readers have expressed concern about perceived loss of freedom or privacy that comes with e-readers, namely the inability to read anything without tracking.

6. Positive aspects. (Положительные моменты)
Electronic books can hold thousands of books is limited only by their memory and use the same physical space as a regular book. E-Ink displays are not back-lit so it seems that there is no more eyestrain than a traditional book and less eye strain than LCD screens, with longer battery life. Features such as the ability to adjust the font size and spacing can help people who have difficulty reading or are dyslexic. Some e-books reference to the definitions or translations of key words. Amazon notes that 85% of its reader users to look up a word while reading.
E-books can be instantly downloaded content from supported public libraries through apps like Overdrive and hoopla.

7. Popular e-readers. (Популярным e-читателей)
Global Amazon: Kindle Paperwhite, Kindle Voyage, Oasis Of The Kindle 2 Oasis.
Company Bookeen France, Activation opus, Orizon user content Litres, users Odyssey HD backlight.
Germany Tolino: Tolino Shine, Tolino Shine 2 in HD, Tolino vision 2 Tolino vision.
Global Kobo: Kobo touch, Kobo Glo, mini Kobo aura, Kobo aura HD.
Onyx BOOX Europe, China and Vietnam: Onyx Max2 website BOOX, Onyx BOOX note.
PocketBook Europe and Russia: a model PocketBook touch, wallet mini, PocketBook touch Lux, PocketBook color Lux, PocketBook Aqua.
Barnes & noble US / UK NOOK GlowLight, Nook with GlowLight plus.

The Nintendo e - Reader stylized as ereader, commonly abbreviated as e - Reader known in Japan as the Card - e - Reader is an add - on manufactured by Nintendo
detail e - book reader software for the Android operating system. Each section corresponds to a major area of functionality in an e - book reader software
An e - reader also known as an e - book reader is a portable electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading e - books and periodicals
features for a number of iOS e - book reader software. Each section corresponds to a major area of functionality in an e - book reader software. The comparisons
The Sony Reader was a line of e - book readers manufactured by Sony, who produced the first commercial E Ink e - reader with the Sony Librie in 2004. It used
application A card reader for extracting data from various forms of card - shaped media An e - reader a device or software for viewing e - books Amazon Kindle
is an e - Reader an electronic book e - book reading device. The Hanlin v3 features a 6 15 cm 4 - level grayscale electrophoretic display E Ink material
Microsoft Reader is a Microsoft application for reading e - books, first released in August 2000, or a Microsoft application for reading PDF and XPS files
PocketBook is a multinational company which produces e - book readers based on E Ink technology an electronic paper technology under the PocketBook brand
The Alex e Reader is a discontinued e - book reader created by Spring Design. As with the Barnes Noble Nook, the Alex features two screens. The upper is
version of a printed book some e - books exist without a printed equivalent. E - books can be read on dedicated e - reader devices, but also on any computer

control reader can be a magnetic stripe reader a bar code reader a proximity reader a smart card reader or a biometric reader Access control readers are
A screen reader is a form of assistive technology that is essential to people who are blind, as well as useful to people who are visually impaired, illiterate
The Kobo e Reader is an e - reader produced by Toronto - based Kobo Inc. The company s name is an anagram of book The original version was released in May
Google Reader was an RSS Atom feed aggregator operated by Google. It was created in early 2005 by Google engineer Chris Wetherell and launched on October
A B reader is a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH as demonstrating proficiency in classifying
The Robert E Howard Reader is a collection of essays on fantasy writer Robert E Howard and his works, edited by Darrell Schweitzer. Originally scheduled
Bluefire Reader is an e - book reader application for Android superseded by Cloudshelf Reader iOS and Windows operating systems that supports white - labelling
Sadenia Eddi Reader MBE born 29 August 1959 is a Scottish singer - songwriter, known both for her work with Fairground Attraction and for an enduring
Weekly Reader was a weekly educational classroom magazine designed for children. It began in 1928 as My Weekly Reader Editions covered curriculum themes
An e - reader is a device or computer program used for reading electronic books. E - reader may also refer to: e Reader format a file format for e - books
readers for more than 3 decades and is used for assays such as ELISA assays, protein and nucleic acid quantification or enzyme activity assays i. e
The Barnes Noble Nook styled nook or NOOK is a brand of e - readers developed by American book retailer Barnes Noble, based on the Android platform
Reader - response criticism is a school of literary theory that focuses on the reader or audience and their experience of a literary work, in contrast

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