• Citroen Metropolis

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  • Citroen Type C 5HP

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  • Citroen Ami

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  • Citroen TUB

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  • Citroen Type A

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  • Citroen SM

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  • Citroen Hypnos

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  • Citroen Mehari

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  • Citroen Xantia

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  • Citroen 2CV

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  • Citroen ZX

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  • Citroen GS

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  • Citroen CX

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  • Citroen BX

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  • Citroen Dyane

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  • Citroen XM

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  • Citroen H Van

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  • Citroen Saxo

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  • Citroen Traction Avant

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  • Citroen DS

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  • Citroen Xsara

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  • Citroen C6

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  • Citroen C5

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  • Citroen C4

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  • Citroen C3

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  • Citroen C2

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Citroen

Citroen is a French automobile manufacturer founded in 1919 by the French industrialist Andre-Gustave Citroen, and part of the PSA Peugeot Citroen group since 1976.
In 1934, the firm established its reputation for innovative technology with the Traction Avant. This car was the worlds first mass-produced front wheel drive car, and also one of the first to feature a unibody construction, with no chassis supporting the mechanical components.
In 1954 they produced the worlds first hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension system then, in 1955, the revolutionary DS, the first mass-produced car with modern disc brakes and, in 1967, they introduced in several of their models swiveling headlights that allowed for greater visibility on winding roads; these cars have received various national and international awards, including three European Car of the Year.
With a successful history in motorsport, Citroen is the only automobile manufacturer to have won three different official championships from the International Automobile Federation: the World Rally Raid Championship five times, the World Rally Championship eight times and the World Touring Car Championship.
Citroen has been selling vehicles in China since 1984, largely via the Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen joint venture, which today represents a major market for the brand. In 2014, when PSA Peugeot Citroen ran into severe financial difficulties, the Dongfeng Motor Corporation took an ownership stake.

1.1. History Early years
Andre Citroen built armaments for France during World War I; after the war however, he realised that, unless he planned ahead he would have a modern factory without a product. There was nothing automatic about his decision to become an automobile manufacturer once the war was over: the automotive business was one that Citroen knew well, thanks to a successful six-year stint working with Mors between 1908 and the outbreak of war. The decision to switch to automobile manufacturing was evidently taken as early as 1916, which is the year when Citroen asked the engineer Louis Dufresne, previously with Panhard, to design a technically-sophisticated 18HP automobile for which he could use his factory once peace returned. Long before that happened, however, he had modified his vision and decided, like Henry Ford, that the best post-war opportunities in auto-making would involve a lighter car of good quality, but made in sufficient quantities to be priced enticingly. In February 1917 Citroen contacted another engineer, Jules Salomon, who already had a considerable reputation within the French automotive sector as the creator, in 1909, of a little car called Le Zebre. Andre Citroens mandate was characteristically demanding and characteristically simple: to produce an all-new design for a 10 HP car that would be better equipped, more robust and less costly to produce than any rival product at the time.
The result was the Type A, announced to the press in March 1919, just four months after the guns fell silent. The first production Type A emerged from the factory at the end of May 1919 and in June it was exhibited at a show room at Number 42, on the Champs-Elysees in Paris which normally sold Alda cars. Citroen persuaded the owner of the Alda business, Fernand Charron, to lend him the show-room, which is still in use today. This C42 showroom is where the company organises exhibitions and shows its vehicles and concept cars. A few years later, Charron would be persuaded to become a major investor in the Citroen business. On 7 July 1919, the first customer took delivery of a new Citroen 10HP Type A.
That same year, Andre Citroen briefly negotiated with General Motors a proposed sale of the Citroen company. The deal nearly closed, but General Motors ultimately decided that its management and capital would be too overstretched by the takeover. thus Citroen remained independent till 1935.
Between 1921 and 1937, Citroen produced half-track vehicles for off-road and military uses, using the Kegresse track system. In the 1920s, the U.S. Army purchased several Citroen-Kegresse vehicles for evaluation followed by a licence to produce them. This resulted in the Army Ordnance Department building a prototype in 1939. In December 1942, it went into production with the M2 Half Track Car and M3 Half-track versions. The U.S. eventually produced more than 41.000 vehicles in over 70 versions between 1940 and 1944. After their 1940 occupation of France, the Nazis captured many of the Citroen half-track vehicles and armored them for their own use.
Mr Citroen was a keen marketer: he used the Eiffel Tower as the worlds largest advertising sign, as recorded in Guinness World Records. He also sponsored expeditions in Asia Croisiere Jaune, North America Croisiere Blanche and Africa Croisiere Noire, demonstrating the potential for motor vehicles equipped with the Kegresse track system to cross inhospitable regions. These expeditions conveyed scientists and journalists.
Demonstrating extraordinary toughness, a 1923 Citroen that had already travelled 48.000 km 30.000 mi was the first car to be driven around Australia. The car, a 1923 Citroen 5CV Type C Torpedo, was driven by Neville Westwood from Perth, Western Australia, on a round trip from August to December 1925. This vehicle is now fully restored and in the collection of the National Museum of Australia. In 1924, Citroen began a business relationship with the American engineer Edward G. Budd. From 1899, Budd had worked to develop stainless steel bodies for railroad cars, for the Pullman in particular. Budd went on to manufacture steel bodies for many automakers, Dodge being his first big auto client. At the Paris Motor Show in October 1924, Citroen introduced the Citroen B10, the first all-steel body in Europe. These automobiles were initially successful in the marketplace, but soon competitors who were still using a wooden structure for their vehicles introduced new body designs. Citroen who did not redesign the bodies of his cars, still sold in large quantities nonetheless, the cars low price being the main selling point, which factor however caused Citroen to experience heavy losses.
In 1927 the bank Lazard helped Citroen by bringing new much-needed funds, as well as by renegotiating its debt - for example, by buying out the Societe de Vente des Automobiles Citroen SOVAC - It went even further by entering in its capital and being represented on the board; the three directors sent by Lazard were Raymond Philippe, Andre Meyer and Paul Frantzen. Andre Citroen perceived the need to differentiate his product, to avoid the low price competition surrounding his conventional rear drive models in the late 1920s/early 1930s. In 1933 he introduced the Rosalie, the first commercially available passenger car with a diesel engine, developed with Harry Ricardo.

1.2. History Traction Avant
The Traction Avant is a car that pioneered the mass production of three revolutionary features that are still in use today: a unitary body with no separate frame, four wheel independent suspension and front-wheel drive. Whereas for many decades, the vast majority of motor cars were similar in conception to the Ford Model T – a body bolted onto a ladder frame which held all the mechanical elements of the car, a solid rear axle that rigidly connected the rear wheels and rear wheel drive. The Model T school of automobile engineering proved popular because it was considered cheap to build, although it did pose dynamic defects as automobiles were becoming more capable, and resulted in heavier cars, which is why today cars are more like the Traction Avant than the Model T under the skin. In 1934 Citroen commissioned the American Budd Company to create a prototype, which evolved into the 7 fiscal horsepower CV, 32 hp 24 kW Traction Avant.
Achieving quick development of the Traction Avant, tearing down and rebuilding the factory in five months and the extensive marketing efforts, were investments that resulted too costly for Citroen to do all at once, causing the financial ruin of the company. In December 1934, despite the assistance of the Michelin company, Citroen filed for bankruptcy. Within the month, Michelin, already the car manufacturers largest creditor, became its principal shareholder. However, the technologically advanced Traction Avant had met with market acceptance, and the basic philosophy of cutting edge technology used as a differentiator, continued until the late 1990s. Pierre Michelin became the chairman of Citroen early in 1935. Pierre-Jules Boulanger, his deputy, became the vice-president and chief of the engineering and design departments. In 1935, the founder Andre Citroen died from stomach cancer.

1.3. History Research breakthroughs
Pierre-Jules Boulanger had been a First World War air reconnaissance photography specialist with the French Air Force; he was capable and efficient and finished the war with the rank of captain. He was also courageous, having been decorated with the Military Cross and the Legion of Honour. He started working for Michelin in 1918, reporting directly to Edouard Michelin, co-director and founder of the business. Boulanger joined the Michelin board in 1922 and became president of Citroen in January 1938 after the death in a road accident his friend Pierre Michelin remaining in this position until his own death in 1950. In 1938, he also had become Michelins joint managing director.
During the German occupation of France in World War II Boulanger refused to meet Dr. Ferdinand Porsche or communicate with the German authorities except through intermediaries. He organized a "go slow" on production of trucks for the Wehrmacht, many of which were sabotaged at the factory by putting the notch on the oil dipstick in the wrong place, which resulted in engine seizure. In 1944 when the Gestapo headquarters in Paris was sacked by the French Resistance, his name was prominent on a Nazi blacklist of the most important enemies of the Reich, to be arrested in the event of an allied invasion of France.
Citroen researchers, including Paul Mages, continued their work in secret, against the express orders of the Germans, and developed the concepts that were later brought to market in three remarkable vehicles – a small car 2CV, a delivery van Type H and a large, swift family car DS. These were widely regarded by contemporary journalists as avant garde, even radical, solutions to automotive design. Thus began a decades long period of unusual brand loyalty, normally seen in the automobile industry only in niche brands, like Porsche and Ferrari.

1.4. History The Deux Chevaux
Citroen unveiled the 2CV - signifying two fiscal horsepower, initially only 12 hp 8.9 kW - at the Paris Salon in 1948. The car became a bestseller, achieving the designers aim of providing rural French people with a motorized alternative to the horse. It was unusually inexpensive to purchase and, with its tiny two cylinder engine, inexpensive to run as well. The 2CV pioneered a very soft, interconnected suspension, but did not have the more complex self-levelling feature. This car remained in production, with only minor changes, until 1990 and was a common sight on French roads until recently; 8.8 Million 2CV variants were produced in the period 1948–1990.

1.5. History The Goddess
1955 saw the introduction of the DS, the first full usage of Citroens hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension system, tested on the rear suspension of the Traction in 1954, which was also the first production car with modern disc brakes. A single high-pressure hydraulic system was used to activate the power steering, the suspension and brakes; the brakes were power assisted to multiply the force applied by the driver. On the Citromatic semi-automatic transmission version, the system also operated the clutch, through a system of pistons in the gearbox cover to shift the gears in the transmission. From 1968, the DS also introduced directional headlights, that moved with the steering, improving visibility at night. The streamlined car was remarkable for its era and had a remarkable sounding name – in French, DS is pronounced, which sounds the same as deesse, which means Goddess. It placed third in the 1999 Car of the Century competition.

1.6. History High pressure hydraulics
This high-pressure hydraulic system would form the basis of over 9 million Citroen cars, including the DS, SM, GS, CX, BX, XM, Xantia, C5, and C6. Self-levelling suspension is the principal user benefit: the car maintains a constant ride height above the road, regardless of passenger and cargo load and despite the very soft suspension. Hydropneumatic suspension is uniquely able to absorb road irregularities without disturbing the occupants and is often compared to riding on a magic carpet for this reason. These vehicles shared the distinguishing feature of rising to operating ride height when the engine was turned on, like a "mechanical camel" per Car & Driver magazine. A lever later replaced by an electronic switch beside the drivers seat allowed the driver to adjust the height of the car; this height adjustability allows for the clearing of obstacles, fording shallow slow-moving streams and changing tyres.
Since Citroen was underfunded, its vehicles had the tendency to be underdeveloped at launch, with limited distribution and service networks outside France. Consequently, the early DS models experienced teething issues with the novel suspension but, eventually, the hydropneumatics were sorted out and became reliable. Licensing such a technological leap forward was pursued to a limited extent: in 1965 the Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow used this type of suspension, while the 1963 Mercedes-Benz 600 and Mercedes-Benz 300SEL 6.3 tried to replicate its advantages with a costly, complex and expensive to maintain, air suspension, that avoided the Citroen-patented technology. By 1975, the Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6.9 was finally produced with this proven system and Mercedes-Benz continues to offer variations on this technology today. During Citroens 1968–1975 venture with Maserati, the Citroen high-pressure hydraulic system was used on several Maserati models: for power clutch operation Bora; power pedal adjustment Bora; pop-up headlights Bora, Merak; brakes ; steering Khamsin and the entire Quattroporte II prototype, which was a four-door Citroen SM under the skin.

1.7. History Aerodynamic pioneer
Citroen was one of the early pioneers of the now-widespread trend of aerodynamic automobile design, which helps to reduce fuel consumption and to improve high-speed performance, by reducing wind resistance. The DS could happily cruise at 160 km/h 100 mph without any discomfort for the occupants. The firm began using a wind tunnel in the 1950s, helping them to create highly streamlined cars - such as the DS - that were years ahead of their competitors, and so good were the aerodynamics of the CX model, that it took its name - c x {\displaystyle \mathbf {c} _{\mathrm {x} }\,} - from the mathematical term used to measure the drag coefficient.

1.8. History Expansion and financial challenges
In the 1960s, Citroen undertook a series of financial and development decisions, aiming to build on its strength of the 1950s with the successful 2CV, Type H, and DS models. Citroen went bankrupt in 1974, so the effectiveness of these manoeuvres is rather doubtful.
These manoeuvres were to address two key gaps facing the company:
The second major issue was the lack of a powerful engine suitable for export markets. The post-WW2 Tax horsepower system in France was steeply progressive and vehicles over 2.0 later 2.8 litres displacement, faced a heavy annual tax, with the result that cars made in France were considered underpowered outside the country. For both the 1955 DS and 1974 CX models, development of the original engine around which the design was planned proved too expensive for the available finances, so the actual engine used in both cases was a modest and outdated four-cylinder design.
The first one was the lack of a mid-size car, between its own range of very small, cheap passenger vehicles 2CV/Ami and the large, expensive models DS/ID. In todays terms, this would be similar to a brand consisting only of the Tata Nano and Jaguar XJ. Because of its potential volume, the mid-size segment was the most profitable part of the car market and, in 1965, the Citroenesque Renault 16 stepped in to fill it.
These steps include:
1965 - purchased the truck manufacturer Berliet.
1965 - took over the French maker Panhard in the hope of using its expertise in mid-sized cars; cooperation between the two companies had begun twelve years earlier and they had agreed to a partial merger of their sales networks in 1953; Panhard ceased manufacturing in 1967.
1963 - opened negotiations with Peugeot to cooperate in the purchase of raw materials and equipment, but talks broke off in 1965.
1968 - purchased the Italian sports car maker Maserati again with an eye to producing a more powerful car, keeping a small engine in line with the French tax horsepower system. The first production vehicle developed 170 hp with a 2.7 litre engine., this was the 1970 SM, which featured a V6 Maserati power plant, hydropneumatic suspension and a fully powered, self-centering steering system called DIRAVI; the SM was engineered as if it were replacing the DS family car, a level of investment that the small luxury Grand Touring car sector alone would never be able to support, even in the best of circumstances.
1964 - partnered with NSU Motorenwerke to develop the Wankel engine via the Comobil later Comotor subsidiary. For Citroen, this represented the chance for a technological run around the French Tax horsepower system by producing a more powerful but still small power plant. The first production car developed 106 hp from a 1-litre engine, while the standard GS delivered 55 hp with a 1-litre engine.
1968 - restructured worldwide operations under a new holding company, Citroen SA. Michelin, Citroens longtime controlling shareholder, sold a 49% stake to Fiat in what was referred to as the PARDEVI agreement Participation et Developpement Industriels.
The teams of Charles Marchetti and Citroen began working together on the development of the RE-2 helicopter.
From a model range perspective, the 1970s started well, supported by the successful launch of the long-awaited mid-size Citroen GS, finally filling the huge gap between the 2CV and the DS – with a 1-litre, hydropneumatically suspended car. The GS went on to sell 2.5 million units; 601.918 cars were produced in 1972 alone - up from the 526.443 of 1971 - enough to lift the company past Peugeot into second place among French auto makers when ranked by sales volume. The older models continued to sell well - the peak production period of the DS was 1970, and 2CV was in 1974.
As the 1970s progressed, circumstances became more unfavourable. In 1973, Fiat sold back to Michelin its 49% stake in the PARDEVI holding company that owned Citroen, the Citroen and Fiat joint announcement indicated that the benefits foreseen for their union in 1968 had failed to materialise. This was not in line with the tyre companys long term strategy of ending involvements in the car manufacturing business and created a very unstable ownership situation. The company suffered another financial blow with the 1973 energy crisis - the gamble on Comotor and Maserati showed that there was a serious flaw with the plan particularly for companies producing engines with high fuel consumption.
In 1974, the carmaker withdrew from North America due to U.S. design regulations that outlawed core features of Citroen cars see Citroen SM.
Huge losses at Citroen were caused by the failure of the Comotor rotary engine venture added to the strategic management error of going the 15 years from 1955 to 1970 without a model in the profitable middle range of the European market, plus the massive development costs a string of new models: the GS, GS Birotor, CX, SM, Maserati Bora, Maserati Merak, Maserati Quattroporte II, and Maserati Khamsin. Each of these models is a technological marvel in its own right. Thus, forty years after the bankruptcy related to the Traction Avant, Citroen went bankrupt again, losing its existence as an independent entity; selling Berliet and Maserati and closing Comotor.

1.9. History The PSA Peugeot Citroen era
Fearing large job losses due to the poor cash flow situation and the unstable ownership structure, the French government arranged talks between Citroen and Michelin culminating in the merger of Automobiles Citroen and Automobiles Peugeot into a single company. Thus, one year after the break with Fiat, on 24 June 1974 Citroen announced the new partnership, this time with Peugeot. to whom Michelin agreed to transfer control of the business. In December 1974 Peugeot S.A. acquired a 38.2% share of Citroen and on 9 April 1976 they increased their stake of the then bankrupt company to 89.95%, thus creating the PSA Group where PSA is short for Peugeot Societe Anonyme, becoming PSA Peugeot Citroen. In May 1975 Maserati was sold to De Tomaso and the new Italian owner was thereby able to exploit the sales potential of the models and technology developed by Citroen, as well as to utilise the image of the Maserati brand in a downward brand extension to sell 40.000 of the newly designed Bi-Turbo models. The truck manufacturing company Berliet was sold to Renault.
This new PSA venture was a financial success from 1976 to 1979. Citroen had two successful new designs in the market, the GS and CX. In the wake of the oil crisis, the brand also had resurgent sales for the 2CV and the Dyane, and soon the Peugeot 104 based Citroen Visa and Citroen LNA. Peugeot was typically prudent with its own finances. Then, PSA purchased the ageing assets and substantial liabilities of Chrysler Europe for $1, leading to losses from 1980 to 1985. PSA resurrected the Talbot name for the Chrysler cars, but stopped producing cars with the badge 1987 as the cars were considered unreliable and poorly-made.

1.10. History Conflict with the Trade unions
In the early 1980s, Citroen was targeted by union action. On 25 May 1982, events led to a mass demonstration in the streets of Paris, when approximately 27.000 workers affirmed their wish to work at a company, which was being picketed by striking workers who had been blocking access to the factories for four weeks. The demonstration was successful and six days later work at the plants resumed. Jacques Lombard, one of the companys senior managers, had gone public with his concerns, criticising the strikes.

1.11. History Taming the innovative spirit
PSA gradually diluted Citroens ambitious, highly individualistic, and distinctive approach to engineering and styling. All through the 1980s, Citroen models became increasingly Peugeot-like. The 1982 BX used the hydropneumatic suspension system and had a typical Citroenesque appearance, whilst being powered by Peugeot-derived engines and using the floorpan later seen on the Peugeot 405. In this respect PSA followed the worldwide motor industry trend of platform sharing which is a logical way to reduce costs whilst selling apparently different models. By the late 1980s, many of the distinctive features of the brand had been removed or altered - Peugeots conventional switchgear replacing Citroens quirky but ergonomic Lunule designs, complete with self-cancelling indicators that Citroen had refused to adopt on ergonomic grounds. The cars were more banal and conventional, but also able to break into new markets, like fleet vehicles in the UK.

1.12. History Geographic expansion
In the meantime Citroen expanded into many new global markets: in the late 1970s, the firm developed a small car for production in Romania known as the Oltcit, which it sold in Western Europe as the Citroen Axel. That joint venture has now ended, but a new one between PSA and Toyota is now producing cars like the Citroen C1 in the Czech Republic. The China joint venture began selling cars in 1984 and building them in 1994. The current range of family cars there includes the C3 and Xsara and locally designed cars like the Fukang and Elysee models. The brand has recently increased its Chinese sales by 30% - in an overall market growth of 11% - and ranks highest in the 2014 customer satisfaction survey by JD Power in China. It is a global brand, except in North America, where the company has not returned since the SM was effectively banned in 1974 for not meeting U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA bumper height regulations.
In 2016, Peugeot-Citroen South Africa PCSA announced that they were going to stop importing new Citroen models into South Africa in order to focus on increasing Peugeots sales in the country. In May 2019, it was reported that PCSA would re-introduce the Citroen brand into South Africa, this was later confirmed by PCSA, in August 2019, that new Citroen models will go on sale in the middle of October 2019.

1.13. History The recent decade
From 2003–2010, Citroen produced the C3 Pluriel, an unusual convertible with allusions to the 1948–1990 2CV model, both in body style such as the bonnet and in its all-round practicality. In 2001 it celebrated its history of innovation when it opened a museum of its many significant vehicles: the Conservatoire with 300 cars. In line with the severe decline in European car sales after 2009, worldwide sales of vehicles declined from 1.460.373 in 2010 to 1.435.688 in 2011, with 961.156 of these sold in Europe.
In 2011 the PSA Group was close to forming a partnership with BMW, for the development of electric and hybrid vehicles, but the talks fell through, shortly after Groupe PSA, Citroens parent company, had announced a partnership with GM, which later also failed. Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen continues growing, and has developed eight new car designs exclusively for the China market. Currently in China, Citroen and Peugeot face the same challenge as Volkswagen: there are too many sedans and hatchbacks, but not enough models in the strong selling SUV and minivan/MPV categories.
The brand ranked highest in the 2014 customer satisfaction survey by JD Power in China, above luxury brands like Mercedes-Benz and BMW, and above mass market brands, like Volkswagen, ranking only thirteenth and seventeenth respectively. In the first ten months of 2014 in China, the sales of Donfeng Citroen cars increased by 30% in an overall market growth of 11%. Despite the near-death financial experience of PSA Peugeot Citroen in 2014, and financial rescue by Dongfeng Motors, the Citroen and DS brands are developing new technologies and are both hoping to grow 15% by 2020, according to Citroen CEO Linda Jackson and DS CEO Yves Bonnefont.

1.14. History The DS brand
In early 2009, Citroen announced the development of the premium brand DS, for Different Spirit or Distinctive Series - although the reference to the historical Citroen DS is evident - to run in parallel to its mainstream cars. The slogan of the DS car marque is "Spirit of avant-garde".
This new series of cars started early in 2010, with the DS3, a small car based on the floorpan of the new C3. The DS3 is based on the concept that preceded the C3 Pluriel production model and the DS Inside concept car. The DS3 is customisable with various roof colours contrasting with the body panels; it was named 2010 Car of the Year by Top Gear Magazine, and was awarded best supermini four times in a row by the JD Power Satisfaction Survey UK and second most efficient supermini Citroen DS3 1.6 e-HDi 115 Airdream: True MPG 63.0mpg by What car? behind the C3. In 2013 the DS3 was again the best-selling premium subcompact car, with 40% of the European market share, validating the business model of this product development.
The DS series is deeply connected to Citroen, as the DS4 launched in 2010, is based on the 2008 Citroen Hypnos concept car and the DS5, which followed in 2015 being based on the 2005 C-SportLounge concept car. The rear badge is a new DS logo rather than the familiar Citroen double chevron and all will have markedly different styling from their equivalent sister cars. Citroen has produced several dramatic looking concept sports cars of late, with the fully working Citroen Survolt being badged as a DS. Indeed, the 2014 DS Divine concept car develops the Citroen Survolt prototype as the future sport coupe of the DS range.
In China, Citroen has standalone DS showrooms, as well as entire plants built specifically for the production of these vehicles. Since 2014 Citroen has sold the Chinese-built DS 5LS and DS 6WR in China.

2. Awards
Citroen was recognised in the 1999 Car of the Century competition as producing the third most influential car of the 20th century, the Citroen DS, behind the Ford Model T and BMC Mini.
Citroen has produced three winners of the 50-year-old European Car of the Year award, and many rated second or third place.
Citroen has produced one winner of the United States Motor Trend Car of the Year award – the original Car of the Year designation, which began in 1949. This was especially significant because this award used to be only given to cars designed and built in the United States.
Citroen has produced eight Auto Europa winners in 28 years, since 1987. Auto Europa is the prize awarded by the jury of the Italian Union of Automotive Journalists UIGA, which annually celebrates the best car produced at least at 10.000 units in the 27 countries of the European Union: Citroen XM1990, Citroen ZX 1992, Citroen Xantia 1994, Citroen Xsara Picasso 2001, Citroen C5 2002, Citroen C3 2003, Citroen C4 2005 and Citroen DS4 2012.

3. Citroen Racing
Citroen Racing, previously known as Citroen Sport and before that as Citroen Competitions, is the team responsible for Citroens sporting activities. It is a successful winning competitor in the World Rally Championship and in the World Touring Car Championship. They also currently have supply engines to DS Virgin Racing in Formula E.

3.1. Citroen Racing Early rally wins for Citroen vehicles
Citroen vehicles were entered in endurance rally driving events beginning in 1956, with the introduction of the DS. The brand was successful and won many key events over a decades long period, with what was essentially the same production car design.

3.2. Citroen Racing Racing the 2CV
Citroen discovered that while racing the uniquely slow 2CV against other cars made little sense, they could be interesting to watch racing against each other. Citroen Competitions sponsored three long distance competitions – Paris-Kaboul-Paris in 1970, Paris-Persepolis-Paris in 1972, and Raid Afrique in 1973.
Enthusiasts carried on the tradition with 2CV Cross – a group of 2CVs racing around a dirt track – a sport that continues today.

3.3. Citroen Racing Rebuilding the competition group
The Citroen Competitions division was impacted negatively by the firms 1974 bankruptcy.
Competitive rallying was also changing – away from standard production cars to specially developed low volume models. In response to the entry of the competitive short wheel base Group B 4 wheel drive Audi Quattro into rallying, Citroen developed the heavily modified Group B Citroen BX 4TC in 1986.
The team returned successfully with the Citroen ZX Rally Raid to win the Rally Raid Manufacturers Championship five times 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997 with Pierre Lartigue and Ari Vatanen. Citroen Racing won the Dakar Rally four times, in 1991, continuing the serial of four victories of Peugeot sport, and then again in 1994, 1995, and 1996.
From 2001, the Citroen Racing team returned successfully to the World Rally Championship, winning eight times the Manufacturers Title, continuing the serial of three WRC Championships victories of Peugeot sport, in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. The Citroen WRC Team pilot Sebastien Loeb also won nine Drivers Championships. In 2004, 2005, and 2006, the French pilot won the Drivers Championship, driving the Citroen Xsara WRC, in 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 with the Citroen C4 WRC, and in 2011 and 2012 with the new Citroen DS3 WRC.
The Citroen World Rally Team has a record of 97 victories in the World Rally Championship. In 2014, Citroen was the automaker that won the most world championship titles: 14 World Champion titles in 15 appearances. Citroen won the World Rally Raid Championship 5 times, the World Rally Championship 8 times, and the World Touring Car Championship in its first participation.

3.4. Citroen Racing New competition division for touring cars
In 2013, Citroen Racing created a new sub-division, the Citroen World Touring Car Team, in order to attempt the 2014 World Touring Car Championship. The name Citroen C-Elysee WTCC has been chosen for the race car running in this world competition. It was developed in a few months, thanks to the experience of the Citroen World Rally Team. Citroen revealed a thirty-minute film on its Internet channel, to show the different steps to the C-Elysee project development: Projet M43 WTCC, Citroen WTCC 2014.
The Citroen World Touring Car Team won fourteen victories out of the fifteen first races of the 2014 WTCC season, in spite of the handicap of the 60 kg Compensation Weight put to the leading cars. The Citroen/Total WTCC Team won the Manufacturers WTCC Championship, 5 races before the end of the season, after the 2014 Shanghai race, where Citroen won first, second, third and fourth place, and recorded the fastest lap time. The Citroen World Touring Car Team pilots also got the three first ranks of the Drivers World Touring Car Championship.

4. Concept cars
Citroen has produced numerous concept cars over the decades, previewing future design trends or technologies. Notable concepts include the Citroen Karin 1980, Citroen Activa 1988, Citroen C-Metisse 2006, GT by Citroen 2008 and Citroen Survolt 2010.

5. Logo
The origin of the logo may be traced back to a trip made by the 22-year-old Andre Citroen to Lodz city, Poland, where he discovered an innovative design for a chevron-shaped gear used in milling. He bought the patent for its application in steel. Mechanically a gear with helical teeth produces an axial force. By adding a second helical gear in opposition, this force is cancelled. The two chevrons of the logo represent the intermeshing contact of the two. Early Citroen cars used a herringbone bevel gear final drive in the rear axle.
The presentation of the logo has evolved over time. Before the war, it was rendered in yellow on a blue background. After the war, the chevrons became more subtle herringbones, usually on a white background. With the company searching for a new image during the 1980s, the logo became white on red to give an impression of dynamism.
In February 2009 Citroen launched a new brand identity to celebrate its 90th anniversary, replacing the 1977 design. The new logo was designed by Landor Associates - a 3D metallic variation of the double chevron logo accompanied by a new font for the Citroen name and the new slogan "Creative Technologie". A TV campaign reminiscing over 90 years of Citroen was commissioned to announce the new identity to the public.
Citroen logos

6. Factories
Portugal Mangualde: Berlingo
France Rennes: C5, C5 Aircross
Argentina Buenos Aires: Berlingo First
France Mulhouse: DS4, DS7 Crossback
Argentina Villa Bosch: C4, C4 L
France Poissy: DS3
Spain Opel Zaragoza: C3 Aircross
Brazil Porto Real: C3, C3 Picasso, C4 Cactus
France Sochaux: DS5
Spain Vigo: Berlingo First, Berlingo, C4 Picasso / C4 Grand Picasso, C-Elysee
Slovakia Trnava: C3
Turkey Bursa: Nemo
Spain Madrid: C4 Cactus
Some joint venture models are manufactured in third party or joint venture factories, including the following:
Italy Val di Sangro, PSA/Fiat joint venture Sevel Sud: Jumper/Relay
China Wuhan, Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroen Automobile joint venture: C-Elysee, C3 L, Xsara Picasso, C4 L, C5
Iran Kashan: SAIPA Citroen JV:C3, C3xr, C4
Czech Republic Kolin, Toyota/PSA joint venture: C1
Japan Mizushima. Mitsubishi Motors plant: C-Zero
Turkey, Karsan plant: Berlingo
France Valenciennes PSA/Fiat joint venture Sevel Nord: Citroen Jumpy/Dispatch
Russia Kaluga, PSA/Mitsubishi joint venture: C4, C-Crosser
China Shenzhen, Changan PSA joint venture: DS 5LS and DS 6WR

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