• Toyota Sera

    The Toyota Sera is a 3-door 2+2 hatchback coupe manufactured and marketed by Toyota from 1990 to 1996. The Sera debuted in 1988 as the Toyota AXV-II concept ...

  • Toyota Sequoia

    The Toyota Sequoia is a full-size SUV manufactured by Toyota and derived from its Tundra pickup truck. Introduced in 2000 and manufactured at Toyota Motor Ma...

  • Toyota Wish

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  • Toyota Probox

    The Toyota Probox is a 5-door, 4-seater light commercial van produced by Toyota since July 2002. The Probox is used with a left-hand drive conversion extensi...

  • Toyota Harrier

    The Toyota Harrier is a compact, later mid-size crossover SUV sold by Toyota since December 1997 in Japan and is exclusive to Toyopet Store Japanese dealersh...

  • Toyota Curren

    The Toyota Curren is a sport compact coupe built by Toyota from 1994 to 1999. It is based on the T200 series Celica chassis. It shared the same interior and ...

  • Toyota Caldina

    The Toyota Caldina is an automobile manufactured by Toyota for the Japanese market and released in 1992. It replaced the Corona and Carina wagons, and was so...

  • Toyota Allion

    The Toyota Allion and its twin the Toyota Premio are sedans sold in Japan since 2001 by Toyota. The sedans are designated as a compact car by Japanese dimens...

  • Toyota Mega Cruiser

    The Toyota Mega Cruiser is a large, heavy-duty four wheel drive vehicle introduced by Toyota in 1995. The largest 4WD ever built by Toyota, it resembles the ...

  • Toyota Isis

    The Toyota Isis is a seven-seat large MPV manufactured by Kanto Auto Works under contract for Japanese automaker Toyota. It is sold in Japan and was launched...

  • Toyota Avensis

    The Toyota Avensis is a mid-size/large family car built in Derbyshire, United Kingdom by the Japanese automaker Toyota from October 1997 to August 2018. It w...

  • Toyota Supra

    The Toyota Supra is a sports car and grand tourer manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation beginning in 1978. The initial four generations of the Supra were ...

  • Toyota Porte

    The Toyota Porte is a mini MPV produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota since 2004 that features an electric-powered sliding door on the passenger side, sim...

  • Toyota Tercel

    The Toyota Tercel is a subcompact car manufactured by Toyota from 1978 to 1999 across five generations, in five body configurations sized between the Corolla...

  • Toyota Century

    The Toyota Century is a large four-door limousine produced mainly for the Japanese market, serving as Toyotas flagship car within Japan; globally the unrelat...

  • Toyota Paseo

    The Toyota Paseo is a sports styled compact car sold from 1991–1999 and was loosely based on the Tercel. It was available as a coupe and in later models as a...

  • Daihatsu Boon

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  • Toyota Ractis

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  • Daihatsu Terios

    The Daihatsu Terios is a mini/compact SUV, first released in 1997 by the Japanese car manufacturer Daihatsu as the successor to the F300 series Rocky. The na...

  • Toyota Tundra

    The Toyota Tundra is a pickup truck manufactured in the United States by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota since May 1999. The Tundra was the first North Amer...

  • Toyota iQ

    The Toyota iQ is a transverse engined, front-wheel-drive city car that was manufactured by Toyota and marketed in a single generation for Japan, Europe, and ...

  • Toyota bB

    The Toyota bB is a mini MPV produced by the Japanese car company Toyota for the first generation launched in 2000, and the second generation was built by Dai...

  • Toyota Cresta

    The Toyota Cresta is a mid-size car built by Toyota. It was launched in 1980 and shared the chassis with the Mark II/Cressida, sold at Toyopet Store dealersh...

  • Toyota Aurion

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  • Toyota Dyna

    The Toyota Dyna is a medium-duty cab over truck for commercial use. In the Japanese market, the Dyna is sold alongside its twin called the Toyoace. The Toyoa...

  • Toyota Venza

    The Toyota Venza is a five-passenger mid-size crossover SUV that was manufactured and marketed by Toyota in North America and unveiled at the 2008 North Amer...

  • Toyota Belta

    The Toyota Belta, referred to in North American and Australian markets as the Yaris and in Asian markets as the Vios, is a subcompact sedan manufactured by T...

  • Toyota Fortuner

    The Toyota Fortuner, also known as the Toyota SW4, is a mid-size SUV manufactured by Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. The Fortuner is built on the Hi...

  • Daihatsu Ayla

    The Daihatsu Ayla is a city car designed by Daihatsu and manufactured by Astra Daihatsu Motor in Indonesia. The Ayla is also sold by Toyota as the Toyota Agy...

  • Toyota Tacoma

    The Toyota Tacoma is a pickup truck manufactured in the U.S. by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota since 1995. The first-generation Tacoma, model ye...

  • Toyota Highlander

    The Toyota Highlander, also known as the Toyota Kluger, is a mid-size crossover SUV produced by Toyota. It is built on the same platform as used on the Camry...

  • Toyota Sienna

    The Toyota Sienna is a minivan manufactured by Toyota at the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indiana facility in Princeton, Indiana, United States, for the North ...

  • Toyota Publica

    The Toyota Publica is a small car manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota from 1961 to 1978. Conceived as a family car to fulfill the requirements of t...

  • Toyota Gaia

    The Toyota Gaia is a Japanese market MPV that competes with the Nissan Prairie, Mitsubishi Chariot and the Honda Odyssey. It was replaced by the Toyota Isis....

  • Toyota eCom

    The Toyota eCom was an electric vehicle that Toyota first demonstrated at the 1997 Tokyo Motor Show. The premise of the eCom was not to be just a small car, ...

  • Toyota 4Runner

    The Toyota 4Runner is a compact, later mid-size sport utility vehicle produced by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota and sold throughout the world from 1984 to...

  • Toyota Ipsum

    The Toyota Ipsum, Picnic, SportsVan or Avensis Verso is a seven-seater multi-purpose vehicle produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota from 1995 to 2009. The...

  • Toyota Group

    The Toyota Group is a group of companies that have supplier, vendor and investment relationships with Toyota Industries and Toyota Motor vehicle manufacturin...

  • Toyota Soarer

    The Toyota Soarer is a personal luxury GT coupe that was produced from 1981 to 2005 by Toyota and was sold in Japan. In Japan, it was available at both Toyot...

  • Toyota Hilux

    The Toyota Hilux is a series of light commercial vehicles produced and marketed by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. The majority of these vehicle...

  • Toyota Alphard

    The Toyota Alphard is a minivan produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota since 2002. It is available as a seven- or eight-seater with petrol and hybrid engi...

  • Toyota Noah

    The Toyota Noah is a seven or eight-seat minivan with two rear sliding doors built by Toyota and sold mainly in Asian countries. It is positioned below the E...

  • Toyota Auris

    The Toyota Auris is a compact car derived from the Corolla, manufactured and sold by Toyota. Introduced in 2006, the first generation three/five-door hatchba...

  • Toyota MR2

    The Toyota MR2 is a two-seat, mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive sports car manufactured in Japan and marketed globally by Toyota from 1984 to 2007 over three gen...

  • Toyota Prius C

    The Toyota Prius c, named the Toyota Aqua in Japan, is a full hybrid gasoline-electric subcompact/supermini hatchback manufactured and marketed by Toyota Mot...

  • Toyota LiteAce

    The Toyota LiteAce and TownAce are a line of light commercial and derivative passenger vans produced by the Japanese car manufacturer Toyota. These vehicles ...

  • Toyota Mirai

    The Toyota Mirai, Japanese for "future") is a mid-size hydrogen fuel cell car manufactured by Toyota, one of the first such sedan-like vehicles to be sold co...

  • Toyota UZ engine

    The Toyota UZ engine family is a Gasoline fueled 32-valve quad-camshaft V8 piston engine series used in Toyotas luxury offerings and sport utility vehicles. ...

  • Toyota Corona

    The Toyota Corona is an automobile manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota between 1957 and 2001. Traditionally, the competitor from Nissan was the Nis...

  • Toyota Yaris

    The Toyota Yaris is a subcompact car sold by Toyota since 1999, replacing the Starlet and Tercel. Toyota has used the "Yaris" name on export versions of vari...

  • Toyota Previa

    The Toyota Previa, also known as the Toyota Estima in Japan, and Toyota Tarago in Australia, is an MPV or multi-purpose vehicle that was produced by Toyota f...

  • Toyota Motorsport GmbH

    Toyota Motorsport GmbH is a fully owned and controlled entity of the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota Motor Corporation, based in Cologne, Germany. It...

  • Toyota TF101

    The Toyota TF101 was a Formula One car used solely for testing purposes during the 2001 season, in preparation for the teams full-scale assault on the series...

  • Daihatsu Move Conte

    The Daihatsu Move Conte is a kei car built by the Japanese automaker Daihatsu from 2008 to 2017. It is a cosmetic variation of the L175 series Move. It has t...

  • Toyota Land Cruiser

    The Toyota Land Cruiser is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. It is Toyotas longest running serie...

  • Toyota Mark II

    The Toyota Mark II is a compact, later mid-size sedan manufactured and marketed in Japan by Toyota between 1968 and 2004. Prior to 1984, the model was market...

  • Toyota Carina

    The Toyota Carina is an automobile which was manufactured by Toyota from December 1970 to December 2001. It was introduced as a sedan counterpart of the Celi...

  • Toyota RAV4

    The Toyota RAV4, Toyota Ravufō) is a compact crossover SUV produced by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. This was the first compact crossover SUV;...

  • Toyota Prius

    The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric automobile developed and manufactured by Toyota since 1997. Initially offered as a 4-door sedan, it has been produ...

  • Toyota Sprinter

    The Toyota Sprinter is a compact car manufactured by Toyota as a variant of the Toyota Corolla. Exclusively sold in the Japanese domestic market, the Sprinte...

  • Toyota Crown

    The Toyota Crown is an automobile which has been produced by Toyota in Japan since 1955. It is a line of luxury sedans primarily aimed at the Japanese market...

  • Toyota Celica

    The Toyota Celica or is an automobile produced by Toyota from 1970 to 2006. The Celica name derives from the Latin word coelica meaning "heavenly" or "celest...

  • Toyota Corolla

    The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota. Introduced in 1966, the Corolla was the best-selling car worldwide by 197...

  • Toyota Camry

    The Toyota Camry is an automobile sold internationally by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota since 1982, spanning multiple generations. Originally compact in s...

Toyota

Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. In 2017, Toyotas corporate structure consisted of 364.445 employees worldwide and, as of December 2019, was the tenth-largest company in the world by revenue. Toyota is the second largest automobile manufacturer in the world, behind Volkswagen, based on 2018 unit sales. Toyota was the worlds first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year, which it has done since 2012, when it also reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle. As of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization and by revenue.
Toyota is the global market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles, and one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe. Toyota is also a market leader in hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Cumulative global sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models achieved the 10 million milestone in January 2017. Its Prius family is the worlds top-selling hybrid nameplate with over 6 million units sold worldwide as of January 2017.
The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, as a spinoff from his fathers company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and its first passenger car in 1936, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under five brands, including the Toyota brand, Hino, Lexus, Ranz, and Daihatsu. It also holds a 16.66% stake in Subaru Corporation, a 5.9% stake in Isuzu until 2018, a 5.5% stake in Mazda, as well as joint-ventures with two in China GAC Toyota and Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor, one in India Toyota Kirloskar, one in the Czech Republic TPCA, along with several "nonautomotive" companies. TMC is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in Japan.
Toyota is listed on the London Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange and Tokyo Stock Exchange.

1. Corporate governance
Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi. The main headquarters of Toyota is located in a 4-story building in Toyota. As of 2006, the head office has the "Toyopet" Toyota logo and the words "Toyota Motor". The Toyota Technical Center, a 14-story building, and the Honsha plant, Toyotas second plant engaging in mass production and formerly named the Koromo plant, are adjacent to one another in a location near the headquarters. Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the main headquarters building as "modest". In 2013, company head Akio Toyoda reported that it had difficulties retaining foreign employees at the headquarters due to the lack of amenities in the city.
Its Tokyo office is located in Bunkyo, Tokyo. Its Nagoya office is located in Nakamura-ku, Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its Toyota Financial Services division, and also builds robots.
Presidents of Toyota Motor Company:
Taizo Ishida 1950–1961
Fukio Nakagawa 1961–1967
Kiichiro Toyoda 1941–1950
Eiji Toyoda 1967–1982
Rizaburo Toyoda 1937–1941
In 1981, Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. announced plans to merge with its sales entity Toyota Motor Sales Co., Ltd. Since 1950, the two entities had existed as separate companies as a prerequisite for reconstruction in postwar Japan. Shoichiro Toyoda presided over Toyota Motor Sales in preparation for the consummation of the merger that occurred in 1982. Shoichiro then succeeded his uncle Eiji as the president of the combined organization that then became known as Toyota Motor Corporation.
Presidents of Toyota Motor Corporation:
Akio Toyoda 2009–present
Fujio Cho 1999–2005
Hiroshi Okuda 1995–1999
Katsuaki Watanabe 2005–2009
Tatsuro Toyoda 1992–1995
Shoichiro Toyoda 1982–1992
Eiji Toyoda 1981
Chairmen of Toyota Motor Corporation:
Hiroshi Okuda 1999–2006
Fujio Cho 2006–2013
Shoichiro Toyoda 1992–1999
Takeshi Uchiyamada 2013–present
On June 14, 2013, Toyota Motor Corporation. announced the appointment of external board members; this was a first for the corporation and occurred following approval from general shareholders at a meeting on the same day. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, as the latter became an honorary chairman while Toyoda remains in the post of president.
Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO: 7203. In addition, Toyota is foreign-listed on the New York Stock Exchange under NYSE: TM and on the London Stock Exchange under LSE: TYT. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since 1949 and internationally since 1999.
As reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has 606 consolidated subsidiaries and 199 affiliates.
Scion 100% 2003
Daihatsu Motor Company 100%
Subaru Corporation 16.66% – June 28, 2008
Toyota Tsusho – Trading company for the Toyota Group
DENSO 24.74% – September 30, 2006
Toyota Motor North America 100% – 2004
PT Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia 95% – 2003
Isuzu Motors 5.9% – November 10, 2006
Aisin Seiki Co. 23.0% – September 30, 2006
PT Toyota Astra Motor 50% – 2017
Toyota Canada Inc. 51% – 2013
Toyota Industries 23.51% – March 31, 2006
Lexus 100% 1989
Noble Automotive 23% – 2014
Hino Motors 50.1% – 2001

1.1. Corporate governance Global ranking
Toyota, which earlier was the worlds third-largest automotive manufacturer behind American General Motors and Ford, produced for the first time in history more vehicles than Ford in 2005, and in 2006 even more than General Motors and has been the worlds largest automotive manufacturer since then, except in 2011 when, triggered by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, it fell to the number 3 position behind General Motors and German Volkswagen Group.

2.1. History 1920s–1930s
In 1924, Sakichi Toyoda invented the Toyoda Model G Automatic Loom. The principle of jidoka, which means the machine stops itself when a problem occurs, became later a part of the Toyota Production System. Looms were built on a small production line. In 1929, the patent for the automatic loom was sold to the British company Platt Brothers, generating the starting capital for automobile development.
The production of Toyota automobiles was started in 1933 as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works devoted to the production of automobiles under the direction of the founders son, Kiichiro Toyoda. Its first vehicles were the A1 passenger car and the G1 truck in 1935. The Toyota Motor Company was established as an independent company in 1937 Vehicles were originally sold under the name "Toyoda" トヨダ, from the family name of the companys founder, Kiichirō Toyoda. In April 1936, Toyodas first passenger car, the Model AA, was completed. The sales price was 3.350 yen, 400 yen cheaper than Ford or GM cars.
In September 1936, the company ran a public competition to design a new logo. Of 27.000 entries, the winning entry was the three Japanese katakana letters for "Toyoda" in a circle. However, Rizaburo Toyoda, who had married into the family and was not born with that name, preferred "Toyota" トヨタ because it took eight brush strokes a lucky number to write in Japanese, was visually simpler leaving off the diacritic at the end, and with a voiceless consonant instead of a voiced one voiced consonants are considered to have a "murky" or "muddy" sound compared to voiceless consonants, which are "clear".
Since toyoda literally means "fertile rice paddies", changing the name also prevented the company from being associated with old-fashioned farming. The newly formed word was trademarked and the company was registered in August 1937 as the Toyota Motor Company.

2.2. History 1940s–1950s
From September 1947, Toyotas small-sized vehicles were sold under the name "Toyopet" トヨペット. The first vehicle sold under this name was the Toyopet SA, but it also included vehicles such as the Toyopet SB light truck, Toyopet Stout light truck, Toyopet Crown, Toyopet Master, and the Toyopet Corona. The word "Toyopet" Japanese article was a nickname given to the Toyota SA due to its small size, as the result of a naming contest the Toyota Company organized in 1947. However, when Toyota eventually entered the American market in 1957 with the Crown, the name was not well received due to connotations of toys and pets. The name was soon dropped for the American market, but continued in other markets until the mid-1960s.

2.3. History 1960s–1970s
By the early 1960s, the US had begun placing stiff import tariffs on certain vehicles. The so-called "chicken tax" of 1964 placed a 25% tax on imported light trucks. In response to the tariff, Toyota, Nissan Motor Co. and Honda Motor Co. began building plants in the US by the early 1980s.

2.4. History 1980s
Toyota received its first Japanese Quality Control Award at the start of the 1980s and began participating in a wide variety of motorsports. Due to the 1973 oil crisis, consumers in the lucrative US market began turning to making small cars with better fuel economy. American car manufacturers had considered small economy cars to be an entry-level product, and their small vehicles employed a low level of quality to keep the price low. Conservative Toyota held on to rear-wheel-drive designs for longer than most; while a clear first in overall production they were only third in production of front-wheel-drive cars in 1983, behind Nissan and Honda. In part due to this, Nissans Sunny managed to squeeze by the Corolla in numbers built that year.
In 1982, the Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Motor Sales merged into one company, the Toyota Motor Corporation. Two years later, Toyota entered into a joint venture with General Motors called the New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc, NUMMI, operating an automobile-manufacturing plant in Fremont, California. The factory was an old General Motors plant that had been closed for two years. It is currently the site of Tesla, Inc.s assembly plant. Toyota then started to establish new brands at the end of the 1980s, with the launch of their luxury division Lexus in 1989.

2.5. History 1990s
In the 1990s, Toyota began to branch out from producing mostly compact cars by adding many larger and more luxurious vehicles to its lineup, including a full-sized pickup, the T100 and later the Tundra, several lines of SUVs, a sport version of the Camry, known as the Camry Solara. They would also launch newer iterations of their sports cars, namely the MR2, Celica, and Supra during this era.
With a major presence in Europe, due to the success of Toyota Team Europe, the corporation decided to set up Toyota Motor Europe Marketing and Engineering, TMME, to help market vehicles in the continent. Two years later, Toyota set up a base in the United Kingdom, TMUK, as the companys cars had become very popular among British drivers. Bases in Indiana, Virginia, and Tianjin were also set up. In 1999, the company decided to list itself on the New York and London Stock Exchanges.

2.6. History 2000s
In 2001, Toyotas Toyo Trust and Banking merged with two other banks to form UFJ Bank, which was accused of corruption by Japans government for making bad loans to alleged Yakuza crime syndicates with executives accused of blocking Financial Service Agency inspections. The UFJ was listed among Fortune Magazines largest money-losing corporations in the world, with Toyotas chairman serving as a director. At the time, the UFJ was one of the largest shareholders of Toyota. As a result of Japans banking crisis, UFJ merged with the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi to become the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.
In 2002, Toyota managed to enter a Formula One works team and establish joint ventures with French motoring companies Citroen and Peugeot a year after Toyota started producing cars in France.
A youth-oriented marque for North America, Scion, was introduced in 2003.
Toyota ranked eighth on Forbes 2000 list of the worlds leading companies for the year 2005 but slid to 55th for 2011. The company was number one in global automobile sales for the first quarter of 2008.
In 2007, Toyota released an update of its full-sized truck, the Tundra, produced in two American factories, one in Texas and one in Indiana. Motor Trend named the Tundra "Truck of the Year", and the 2007 Toyota Camry "Car of the Year" for 2007. It also began the construction of two new factories, one to build the RAV4 in Woodstock, Ontario, Canada, and the other to build the Toyota Prius in Blue Springs, Mississippi, USA. This plant was originally intended to build the Toyota Highlander, but Toyota decided to use the plant in Princeton, Indiana, USA, instead. The company has also found recent success with its smaller models - the Corolla and Yaris.

2.7. History 2010s
In 2011, Toyota, along with large parts of the Japanese automotive industry, suffered from a series of natural disasters. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami led to a severe disruption of the supplier base and a drop in production and exports. Severe flooding during the 2011 monsoon season in Thailand affected Japanese automakers that had chosen Thailand as a production base. Toyota is estimated to have lost production of 150.000 units to the tsunami and production of 240.000 units to the floods.
On February 10, 2014, it was announced that Toyota would cease manufacturing vehicles and engines in Australia by the end of 2017. The decision was based on the unfavourable Australian dollar making exports not viable, the high cost of local manufacture and the high amount of competition in a relatively small local market. The company plans to consolidate its corporate functions in Melbourne by the end of 2017. The head office will remain in Port Melbourne and the Altona plant will be retained for other functions. The workforce is expected to be reduced from 3.900 to 1.300. Both Ford Motor Company and General Motors Holden followed suit, ending Australian production in 2016 and 2017 respectively.
The automaker narrowly topped global sales for the first half of 2014, selling 5.1 million vehicles in the six months ending June 30, 2014, an increase of 3.8% on the same period the previous year. Volkswagen AG, which recorded sales of 5.07 million vehicles, was close behind.
In August 2014, Toyota announced it would be cutting its spare-parts prices in China by up to 35%. The company admitted the move was in response to a probe foreshadowed earlier in the month by Chinas National Development and Reform Commission of Toyotas Lexus spare-parts policies, as part of an industry-wide investigation into what the Chinese regulator considers exorbitantly high prices being charged by automakers for spare parts and after-sales servicing.
In November 2015, the company announced that it would invest US$1 billion over the next 5 years into artificial intelligence and robotics research. In 2016, Toyota invested in Uber. The invested amount is not public information.
In March 2016, Toyota partnered with Yanmar to create a fiberglass pleasure boat using Yanmar outboard marine diesel engines or Toyota inboard engines.
On August 27, 2018, Toyota announced an investment of $500 Million in Ubers autonomous cars.

3. Recalls
From November 2009 through 2010, Toyota recalled more than 9 million cars and trucks worldwide in several recall campaigns, and briefly halted production and sales. After pressure from the NHTSA, Toyota issued the recalls, after reports that several vehicles experienced unintended acceleration.
In October 2012, Toyota announced a recall of 7.43 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning power window switches, the largest recall since that of Ford Motor Company in 1996. The move came after a series of recalls between 2009 and 2011 in which it pulled back around 10 million cars amidst claims of faulty mechanics. In March 2014, Toyota agreed to pay a fine of US$1.2 billion for concealing information and misleading the public about the safety issues behind the recalls on Toyota and Lexus vehicles affected by unintended acceleration. Toyota never agreed to be at fault for the problem.
In early November 2014, Toyota USA enlisted a recall involving defective inflaters and propellant devices that may deploy improperly in the event of a crash, shooting metal fragments into vehicle occupants. More than 7 million vehicles are potentially affected in the United States. This recall only affects vehicles equipped with Takata airbags released after the year 2000 in North America. The airbags were manufactured by Takata automotive manufacturing. Toyota is offering a free repair to all affected vehicles worldwide. The fault in the Takata air bags also affected other North American automobile manufacturers as well as European and Japanese automobile manufacturers.
In December 2018, Toyota USA announced a recall of Toyota and Lexus vehicles with Takata airbags that had previously been replaced by the company. The recall affects specific Toyota Corollas, Sequoias, Tundras and Lexus vehicles made between 2002-2005. This recall was announced one year ahead of the initially scheduled recall in December 2019.

4. Logo and branding
In 1936, Toyota entered the passenger car market with its Model AA and held a competition to establish a new logo emphasizing speed for its new product line. After receiving 27.000 entries, one was selected that additionally resulted in a change of its moniker to "Toyota" from the family name "Toyoda". The new name was believed to sound better, and its eight-stroke count in the Japanese language was associated with wealth and good fortune. The original logo is no longer found on its vehicles but remains the corporate emblem used in Japan.
Still, no guidelines existed for the use of the brand name, so "TOYOTA", which was used throughout most of the world, led to inconsistencies in its worldwide marketing campaigns.
To remedy this, Toyota introduced a new worldwide logo in October 1989 to commemorate the 50th year of the company, and to differentiate it from the newly released luxury Lexus brand. The logo made its debut on the 1989 Toyota Celsior and quickly gained worldwide recognition. The three ovals in the new logo combine to form the letter "T", which stands for Toyota. The overlapping of the two perpendicular ovals inside the larger oval represents the mutually beneficial relationship and trust between the customer and the company while the larger oval surrounding both of these inner ovals represents the "global expansion of Toyotas technology and unlimited potential for the future".
The new logo started appearing on all printed material, advertisements, dealer signage, and most of the vehicles themselves in 1990.
In countries or regions using traditional Chinese characters, e.g. Hong Kong and Taiwan, Toyota is known as "豐田". In countries using simplified Chinese characters e.g. China, Singapore, Toyota is written as "丰田" pronounced as Fēngtian in Mandarin Chinese and Hɔng Tshan in Minnanese. These are the same characters as the founding familys name "Toyoda" in Japanese.

4.1. Logo and branding Japan
In Japan, Toyota currently maintains separate dealership sales channels. Toyota sought out to use a hierarchical marketing approach, similar to methods used in North America, but implemented it at all of its dealership chains, with some models being exclusive to particular locations.
The first sales channel established in 1946 is called "Toyota Store" トヨタ店 Toyota-ten and offers large luxury sedans such as the Toyota Century and the Toyota Crown. In more recent years, the Toyota Stores line was expanded to include hybrid and alternate fuel vehicles. In 1955, the "Toyopet Store" トヨペット店 Toyopetto-ten arrived, originally established to sell the Toyota Corona and the Toyopet ToyoAce truck, and currently features mid-range models. Toyotas five channel dealerships in Japan chronology in Japanese.
The "Toyota Publica Store" トヨタパブリカ店 Toyota Paburika-ten was established in 1961 to sell the Toyota Publica. In 1966 it was renamed the "Toyota Corolla Store" トヨタカローラ店 Toyota Karōra-ten to sell the Toyota Corolla. The dealership chain focuses on budget models.
The "Toyota Auto Store" トヨタオート店 Toyota Ōto-ten sales network was established in 1967 to sell the Corolla companion, the Toyota Sprinter, and was renamed "Netz Toyota Store" in 1998. The "Vista" name was used on a new Camry-clone, called the Toyota Vista. The Toyota Vista network was replaced with two networks; "Netz Toyota" ネッツトヨタ店 Nettsu-Toyota-ten in August 1998, and Lexus in 2004. Some former Vista models were rebranded as Lexus レクサス Rekusasu, such as the Altezza and the Aristo, while other products have been taken over by the "Netz Toyota", which was already selling the Toyota ist and the Toyota RAV4. "Netz" is an acronym for "Network of Energetic Teams for Zenith", and targets young buyers.
Toyota previously operated a commercial dealership called Toyota Diesel Shop トヨタディーゼル店 Toyota Dīzeru-ten from 1957 until 1988 that sold various commercial platform trucks, buses, and forklifts, such as the Toyota Dyna and the Toyota Coaster. Hino products were sold at specific Hino locations and shared at Toyota Diesel Store locations after Toyota acquired the company in 1967. Starting in 1980, the Diesel Shop also sold the Starlet, Corolla, Corona, Vista, and Crown installed with diesel engines. When the Toyota Diesel Store was disbanded, commercial products were divided between Toyota Store and Toyopet Store locations.
In 2012, selected Japanese dealership locations were given a special designation called "Area 86" that resembled the North American Toyota network, called Scion, to sell the Toyota 86, building on the marketing approach started with WiLL branded products. As of 2017, the "Area 86" network was rebranded as "GR" for Gazoo Racing, sharing a similar approach to the performance division Toyota Racing Development or "TRD", providing various upgrades for the 86, Vitz, Prius, Mark X, Harrier, Noah and Voxy.
In the female idol group, AKB48, Toyota and AKS, has worked together to create a subunit named Team 8. Team 8 is created with the idea, Idols who come to meet you. They have a total of 47 members, each representing a prefecture of Japan.
Vehicles sold at Toyota Store
The following is a list of all past and present models and where they were available at retail channels nationally. Most models were exclusive to particular retail chains, while some models, like the Prius, are available at all sales channels. Retail chains in Tokyo, Osaka and Okinawa are different.
Century, Crown Majesta, Crown, Master, SAI, Mirai, Prius, Aqua, Allion, Succeed, Blade, Avensis, Sienta, Corolla RunX, C-HR, Porte, Estima, Isis, Roomy, FJ Cruiser, Comfort, Land Cruiser, Hilux Surf, Land Cruiser Prado, Dyna, Stout, Esquire, Coaster, QuickDelivery, 2000GT, Carina, Carina ED, GT-86, Brevis, Gaia, Cavalier, Classic, MasterAce, Hilux, Mega Cruiser, Soarer, Origin, Caldina.
Vehicles sold at Toyopet Store
Mark X, SAI, Mirai, Premio, Prius, Aqua, Belta, Mark X ZiO, Succeed, Ractis, Auris, Blade, GT-86, Porte, Harrier, Vanguard, Esquire, Rush, C-HR, Avensis, Alphard, Comfort, HiAce, ToyoAce, Tank, Sienta, Pixis Space, Mark II-Mark II Qualis-Mark II Blit, Corona, Corona EXiV, Corona Coupe, Corsa, Opa, Avalon, Progres, Cami, ist, Platz, Soarer, Hilux, Cynos, Regius, Celsior, Origin, Caldina, Ipsum.
Vehicles sold at Toyota Corolla Store starting 1966, formerly Toyota Publica Store
SAI, Camry, Prius, Aqua, Corolla Axio, GT-86, Belta, Spade, Probox, Corolla Rumion, C-HR, Ractis, Passo, Corolla Verso, Sera, Vanguard, Roomy, Estima, Noah, Avensis, Sienta, TownAce, Pixis, Publica, Tercel, Windom, Scepter, Corolla Ceres, Origin, Nadia, WiLL, RAV4, Sports 800, Celica, Supra, Corolla Levin, Celica XX, Celica Camry.
Vehicles sold at Netz Store starting 1998, formerly Toyota Vista Store starting 1980, formerly Toyota Auto Store starting 1967
Vitz, SAI, Prius, Aqua, ist, Auris, bB, Avensis, Raum, Spade, Wish, Voxy, RAV4, C-HR, Kluger, Vellfire, iQ, Allex, Tank, Pixis, Fun Cargo, Pronard, Altezza, Verossa, Curren, Aristo, MR-S, MR2, Starlet, Vista, Cresta, Sprinter, Voltz, Blizzard, Chaser, Sprinter Marino, Carib, Granvia, Sprinter Trueno, LiteAce, Ipsum, GT-86, WiLL 1999–2004.

4.2. Logo and branding Australia
Something Special For You. 1981-1983
See How Much Car Your Money Can Buy 1979-1980
Oh What a feeling! 1983–present

4.3. Logo and branding Bangladesh
Running Towards 1974–1979
Interesting vehicle 1991–1998
The Greatest 1986–1991
The Perfection of life 2005–2010
Leads away your life 1979–1986
The Quality 1998–2005
The Amazing 2010–present

4.4. Logo and branding India
Quality Revolution 2012–present
Moving Forward 2005–2012
Touch The Perfection 2001–2005
Every-day 1997–2001

4.5. Logo and branding Indonesia
Choice Of Trust Indonesian: Terpilih Karena Terpercaya, 1984–1989
Lets Go Beyond 2015–present
Because We Love You 2004–2006
Moving Forward 2006–2015
Passion 2001–2004
Leads You Ahead 1989–2001

4.6. Logo and branding Japan
新しいトヨタが走りはじめます。
クルマが未来になっていく。
人へ。社会へ。地球へ。
Drive Your Dreams. 2000–2013
進歩のマーク
Action Toyota 1997–1998
ファミリーカーのトヨタ
Sedan Innovation 1993–1998
Fun To Drive 1984–1990
Start Your Impossible 2017–present
新技術-時代はToyota
安全はトヨタの願い
Big Challenge 1993–1996
Toyota Next One 2014–2015
The World is One 2015–2017
愛される車をめざして
Fun to Drive, Again. 2013–2017

4.7. Logo and branding Malaysia
Passion 2001–2005
Moving Forward 2005–2016
Get The Feeling 2001–2005
Leads You Ahead 1989–2001
All About The Drive 2016–present

4.8. Logo and branding Philippines
You Asked For It You Got It Mid 70s-Early 80s Delta Motors Corp
I Love This Car 1996-1999
Leads You Ahead / The Will To Serve 1989–1995
Passion 2001–2005
Moving Forward 2005–present

4.9. Logo and branding Singapore
I Love what you do for me 1989–1997
Always Better 2012–present
Get The Feeling 2001–2005
Moving Forward 2005–2012
Everyday 1997–2001

4.10. Logo and branding South Africa
Everything keeps going right, Toyota 1973–2004
Lead The Way 2004–present

4.11. Logo and branding South Korea
You Are So Smart 2014-2019
Enjoy Your Style 2019–Present
Smile For Tomorrow 2009-2014

4.12. Logo and branding Thailand
Leads You Ahead 1989–2001
Moving Forward 2005–2012
เร้าใจทุกเส้นทาง -ยุคหน้า โตโยต้า "Exciting All Directions - Next Generation Toyota", 1988–1992
สัมผัสแห่งคุณภาพ "Quality Touch", 1992–1994
Its My Style 1995–1998
Yes We Drive 2003–2005
Passion 2001–2003
ขับเคลื่อนความสุข "Mobility of Happiness", 2012–present
Alive 2018–present

4.13. Logo and branding United States
I love what you do for me 1989–1997
Spanish: Estas hecho para mi
Who could ask for anything more? 1985–1989
Oh What a feeling! 1979–1985
You asked for it, You got it! 1975–1979
Everyday 1997–2001
Spanish: "Todos los dias"
Moving Forward 2004–2012
Spanish: Avanza Confiado
Get The Feeling 2001–2004
Lets Go Places 2012–present
Spanish: Vayamos Juntos Lets go together

4.14. Logo and branding Vietnam
Chuyển dong tiên phong "Leading Mobility", 2016–present
Tiến tới tương lai "Moving Forward", 2006–2016

4.15. Logo and branding Sports
Toyota sponsored, and still sponsors several teams and has purchased naming rights for several venues, and even competitions, including:
Toyota Field, San Antonio, Texas
Toyota Stadium, Frisco, Texas
Toyota Cup
Toyota Center, Kennewick, Washington
Toyota Stadium, Georgetown, Kentucky
Toyota Sports Center, El Segundo, California
Toyota Park, Bridgeview, Illinois
Toyota Center, Houston, Texas
As of 2017, Toyota is an official sponsor of Cricket Australia, the England and Wales Cricket Board and the AFL. In March 2015, Toyota became a sponsor partner for the Olympic Games, in the form of supplying vehicles and communications between vehicles until 2024.

5. Company strategy
Toyotas management philosophy has evolved from the companys origins and has been reflected in the terms "Lean Manufacturing" and Just In Time Production, which it was instrumental in developing. Toyotas managerial values and business methods are known collectively as the Toyota Way. Many businesses worldwide have adopted a similar approach to manufacturing.
In April 2001, Toyota adopted the "Toyota Way 2001", an expression of values and conduct guidelines that all Toyota employees should embrace. Under the two headings of Respect for People and Continuous Improvement, Toyota summarizes its values and conduct guidelines with these five principles:
Genchi genbutsu go and see
Challenge
Respect
Teamwork
Kaizen improvement
According to external observers, the Toyota Way has four components:
Long-term thinking as a basis for management decisions
A process for problem-solving
Adding value to the organization by developing its people
Recognizing that continuously solving root problems drives organizational learning
The Toyota Way incorporates the Toyota Production System.

5.1. Company strategy Operations
Toyota has long been recognized as an industry leader in manufacturing and production. The result is the development of the Toyota Production System. Three stories of its origin have been found, one that they studied Piggly-Wigglys just-in-time distribution system, one that they followed the writings of W. Edwards Deming, and one that they were given the principles from a WWII US government training program Training Within Industry.
As described by external observers of Toyota, the principles of the Toyota Way are:
Use visual control so no problems are hidden
Become a learning organization through relentless reflection and continuous improvement kaizen
Use "pull" systems to avoid overproduction
Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve
Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your companys philosophy
Level out the workload
Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment
Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface
Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right the first time
Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others
Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes
Base your management decisions on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term goals
Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation genchi genbutsu
Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly considering all options; implement decisions rapidly
Toyota has grown from its origins in Japan during the 1930s to become a large multinational corporation. It displaced GM and became the worlds largest automobile maker for the year 2008. It held the title of the most profitable automobile maker US$11 billion in 2006 along with increasing sales in, among other countries, the United States. The world headquarters of Toyota are located in its home country in Toyota City, Japan. Its subsidiary, Toyota Financial Services sells financing and participates in other lines of business. Toyota brands include Scion and Lexus and the corporation is part of the Toyota Group. Toyota also owns 51% of Daihatsu, and 16.7% of Fuji Heavy Industries, which manufactures Subaru vehicles. They also acquired 5.9% of Isuzu Motors Ltd. on November 7, 2006, and will be introducing Isuzu diesel technology into their products.
Toyota has introduced new technologies, including one of the first mass-produced hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles, the Prius, of which it has sold 2 million globally as of 2010, Advanced Parking Guidance System automatic parking, a four-speed electronically controlled automatic with buttons for power and economy shifting, and an eight-speed automatic transmission. Toyota, and Toyota-produced Lexus and Scion automobiles, consistently rank near the top in certain quality and reliability surveys, primarily J.D. Power and Consumer Reports although they led in automobile recalls for the first time in 2009.
In 2005, Toyota, combined with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu Motor Company, produced 8.54 million vehicles, about 500.000 fewer than the number produced by GM that year. Toyota has a large market share in the United States, but a small market share in Europe. It also sells vehicles in Africa and is a market leader in Australia. Due to its Daihatsu subsidiary, it has significant market shares in several fast-growing Southeast Asian countries.
According to the 2017 Fortune Global 500, Toyota is the fifth largest company in the world. Since the recession of 2001, it has gained market share in the United States. Toyotas market share struggles in Europe where its Lexus brand has 0.3% market share, compared to nearly 2% market share as the US luxury segment leader.
In the first three months of 2007, Toyota together with its half-owned subsidiary Daihatsu reported number one sales of 2.348 million units. Toyotas brand sales had risen 9.2% largely on demand for Corolla and Camry sedans. The difference in performance was largely attributed to surging demand for fuel-efficient vehicles. In November 2006, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas added a facility in San Antonio. Toyota has experienced quality problems and was reprimanded by the government in Japan for its recall practices. In 2007, Toyota maintained over 16% of the US market share and was listed second only to GM in terms of volume. Toyota Century Royal is the official state car of the Japanese imperial family, namely for the current Emperor of Japan.
Toyota was hit by the global financial crisis of 2008 as it was forced in December 2008 to forecast its first annual loss in 70 years. In January 2009, it announced the closure of all of its Japanese plants for 11 days to reduce output and stocks of unsold vehicles.
Akio Toyoda became the new president and CEO of the company on June 23, 2009, by replacing Katsuaki Watanabe, who became the new vice chairman by replacing Katsuhiro Nakagawa.

5.2. Company strategy Technology
In 2018 Toyota was regarded as being behind in smart car technology and in need of innovation. The company invested $4 billion in a robotics and AI research institute to create safer vehicles. Alongside the robotics and AI centre, Toyota launched a $2.8 Billion dollar Self-Driving Car Company called Toyota Research Institute-Advanced Development, or TRI-AD, with automotive supplier Aisin Seiki and Denso.
Toyota invested $500m in the driverless car company Uber with the ambition to build the combined technology into Toyotas Sienna minivans, to be used on Ubers ride-hailing network from 2021. In 2019 Toyota partnered with Chinese technology firm Cogobuy to build a Smart Car Ecosystem in the hopes of turning the company from manufacturing-oriented to intelligence-oriented.
In early 2019 it was announced that Japan is planning a moon landing for 2029 and wants its astronauts to explore the lunar surface in a vehicle built by Japanese automaker Toyota.

5.3. Company strategy Worldwide presence
Toyota has factories in most parts of the world, manufacturing or assembling vehicles for local markets in Japan, Australia until 2017, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Canada, Indonesia, Poland, South Africa, Turkey, Colombia, the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Brazil, Portugal, and more recently, Argentina, Czech Republic, Mexico Tijuana, Malaysia, Thailand, Pakistan, Egypt, China, Vietnam, Venezuela, the Philippines, and Russia.
Toyotas net revenue by geographical regions for the year ended March 31, 2007:
In 2002, Toyota initiated the Innovative International Multi-purpose Vehicle project IIMV to optimize global manufacturing and supply systems for pickup trucks and multipurpose vehicles, and to satisfy market demand in more than 140 countries worldwide. IIMV called for diesel engines to be made in Thailand, gasoline engines in Indonesia, and manual transmissions in India and the Philippines, for supply to the countries charged with vehicle production. For vehicle assembly, Toyota would use plants in Thailand, Indonesia, Argentina, and South Africa. These four main IIMV production and export bases supply Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania, Latin America, and the Middle East with three vehicles: The Toyota Hilux Vigo, the Fortuner, and the Toyota Innova.

5.4. Company strategy North America
Toyota Motor North America headquarters is located in Plano, Texas, and operates as a holding company in North America. Its production engineering and manufacturing headquarters is located in Georgetown, Kentucky.
Toyota Canada Inc. has been in production in Canada since 1983 with an aluminium wheel plant in Delta, British Columbia, which currently employs a workforce of roughly 260. Its first vehicle assembly plant, in Cambridge, Ontario, since 1988, now produces Corolla compact cars, Matrix crossover vehicles, and Lexus RX 350 luxury SUVs, with a workforce of 4.300 workers. Its second assembly operation in Woodstock, Ontario, began manufacturing the RAV4 late in 2008. In 2006, Toyotas subsidiary Hino Motors opened a heavy duty truck plant, also in Woodstock, employing 45 people and producing 2000 trucks annually.
Toyota has a large presence in the United States with six major assembly plants in Huntsville, Alabama, Georgetown, Kentucky, Princeton, Indiana, San Antonio, Texas, Buffalo, West Virginia, and Blue Springs, Mississippi. Toyota had a joint-venture operation with General Motors at New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. in Fremont, California, which began in 1984 and ended in 2009. It still has a joint venture with Subaru at Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. in Lafayette, Indiana, which started in 2006. In these assembly plants, the Camry and the Tundra are manufactured, among others.
Toyota marketing, sales, and distribution in the US are conducted through a separate subsidiary, Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. It has started producing larger trucks, such as the new Tundra, to go after the large truck market in the United States. Toyota is also pushing hybrid vehicles in the US such as the Prius, Camry Hybrid, Highlander Hybrid, and various Lexus products. Currently, Toyota has no plans to offer diesel motor options in its North American products, including the light-duty pickup trucks.

5.5. Company strategy Australia
In 1963, Australia was one of the first countries to assemble Toyotas outside Japan. However, in February 2014, Toyota was the last of Australias major automakers to announce the end of production in Australia. The closure of Toyotas Australian plant was completed on October 3, 2017, and had produced a total 3.451.155 vehicles. At its peak in October 2007, Toyota manufactured 15.000 cars a month. Before Toyota, Ford and GMs Holden had announced similar moves, all citing an unfavorable currency and attendant high manufacturing costs.

6.1. Product line Hybrid electric vehicles
Toyota is the worlds market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles, one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe, and the first to commercially mass-produce and sell such vehicles, with the introduction of the Toyota Prius in 1997. The company eventually began providing this option on its main passenger cars such as Camry and later with the Lexus divisions, producing some hybrid luxury vehicles. It labeled such technology in Toyota cars as Hybrid Synergy Drive and in Lexus versions as Lexus Hybrid Drive ". Cumulative global sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models passed the 10 million milestone in January 2017. Its Prius family is the worlds top-selling hybrid nameplate with almost 4 million units sold worldwide as of January 2017.
As of January 2017, Toyota Motor Corporation sells 33 Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models and one plug-in hybrid in over 90 countries and regions around the world, and the carmaker expects to achieve annual sales of 1.5 million units, and cumulative sales of 15 million units by 2020. The Prius liftback is the worlds top selling hybrid gasoline-electric car, its sales achieved the 3 million unit milestone in June 2013, and cumulative sales since 1997 totaled 3.984.600 units at the end of January 2017. The Prius liftback ranks as the top selling hybrid car in the U.S. market, and passed the 1 million milestone in April 2011. Cumulative sales of the Prius in Japan reached the 1 million mark in August 2011. As of January 2017, sales of the Prius liftback totaled over 1.8 million units in Japan and 1.75 million in the United States. Cumulative TMC hybrid sales since the Prius introduction in Europe in 2000 passed the 1 million unit milestone in November 2015.
Worldwide sales of hybrid vehicles produced by Toyota reached 1 million vehicles by May 31, 2007, and the 2 million mark was reached by August 2009, with hybrids sold in 50 countries. The 5 million hybrid sales milestone was reached in March 2013. During 2012, Toyota and Lexus hybrid models sold more than 1 million units a year for the first time, with 1.219 million units sold. During 2013, TMC sold 1.279 million units, and the 6 million sales milestone was achieved in December 2013, just nine months after its latest million unit milestone. The 7 million sales mark was reached in September 2014, again, selling one million hybrids in nine months, and the 8 million sales milestone was achieved in July 2015, just 10 months after the previous million-unit milestone. The 9 million sales mark was reached in April 2016, again, selling one million hybrids in just nine months, and the 10 million milestone in January 2017, one more time nine months later. Toyota estimates that up to January 31, 2017, its hybrids have saved about 7.66 billion U.S. gallons of gasoline 29 billion liters compared to the amount used by gasoline-powered vehicles of similar size, and have emitted approximately 77 million fewer tons of carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions than would have been emitted by gasoline-powered vehicles of similar size and driving performance.
As of April 2016, besides the four Prius liftback generations, Toyotas hybrid lineup includes the Prius α/Prius v/Prius +, Aqua/Prius c, Camry Hybrid 1st and 2nd generation, Toyota Highlander Hybrid Kluger Hybrid in Japan, Toyota Avalon Hybrid, Toyota Auris Hybrid, Toyota Yaris Hybrid Europe only, and the following models sold only in Japan: Alphard Hybrid/Vellfire Hybrid, Estima Hybrid, Toyota Sai, Toyota Harrier, Toyota Crown Hybrid, Toyota Crown Mild Hybrid, Toyota Crown Majesta, Corolla Axio, Corolla Fielder, Toyota Voxy/Noah/Esquire, Toyota Sienta, Toyota Corolla Hybrid, Toyota Levin Hybrid, and Toyota RAV4 Hybrid.
Beginning in 2011, TMC introduced three new members to the Prius family, the Prius v Prius α in Japan and Prius + in Europe, the Prius c Toyota Aqua in Japan, and the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, released in 2012 in Japan, the U.S., and Europe. With a total of 247.230 vehicles sold during the first quarter of 2012, the Toyota Prius family became the third top selling nameplate in the world in terms of total global sales after the Toyota Corolla 300.800 units and the Ford Focus 277.000 units. Until September 2012, the Prius liftback was the top selling new car in Japan for 16 months in a row, until it was surpassed by the Toyota Aqua Prius c in October 2012. With 266.567 units sold in Japan in 2012, the Aqua is considered the most successful nameplate launch in the Japanese market in the last 20 years.
The Prius c/Aqua model, with global sales of 1.380.100 units through January 2017, is TMCs second best-selling hybrid after the Prius liftback, followed the Prius α/v/+ with 671.200 units, and the two generations of the Camry Hybrid, with 614.700 units sold worldwide, all through January 2017. For both Prius family variants, Japan is the top selling market while the U.S. is the top-selling Camry market. Ranking next is the Auris with 378.000 units sold, with Europe as the top market with 354.600 units sold.
Lexus also has their own hybrid lineup, and as of August 2015, consist of the LS 600h/LS 600h L, GS 450h, RX 400h/RX 450h, Lexus HS 250h, Lexus CT 200h, Lexus ES 300h, Lexus IS 300h, Lexus NX 300h, and Lexus RC 300h. Global cumulative sales of Lexus brand hybrids reached the 500 thousand mark in November 2012. The 1 million sales milestone was achieved in March 2016. The Lexus RX 400h/RX 450h ranks as the top selling Lexus hybrid with 363.000 units delivered worldwide as of January 2017, followed by the Lexus CT 200h with 290.800 units, and the Lexus ES 300h with 143.200 units.

6.2. Product line Plug-in hybrids
Toyotas plug-in hybrid electric vehicle project began in 2007, with road trials of the prototype vehicle in France and the UK in 2008. Toyota made 600 Prius plug-in demonstration vehicles for lease to fleet and government customers. 230 were delivered in Japan beginning in late December 2009, 125 models released in the U.S. by early 2010, and 200 units in 18 European countries in 2010. France, the UK, and Germany had the largest fleets with 150 PHEVs. Canada, China, Australia, and New Zealand also participated in the global demonstration program.
The production version of the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid was released in Japan in January 2012, followed by the United States in late February, and deliveries in Europe began in late June 2012. As of April 2016, global sales totaled 75.400 Prius PHVs since 2012, with North America as the leading regional market with 42.700 units, followed by Japan with about 22.100 units, Europe with 10.500 units, and only about 100 units in the rest of the world. The United States is the country market leader with 42.320 units delivered through April 2016. The leading European market is the Netherlands with 4.134 units registered as of 30 November 2015.
During its first year in the market, a total of 27.279 Prius PHVs were sold worldwide, allowing the plug-in version to rank as the second most sold plug-in electric car for 2012. Accounting for cumulative sales since its inception, the Prius PHV was the worlds all-time third best selling plug-in electric car by December 2014. Production of the first generation Prius Plug-in ended in June 2015. As of May 2015, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid ranked as the worlds second top selling plug-in hybrid ever after the Volt/Ampera family. As of April 2016, the Prius plug-in ranking among the top selling plug-in cars fell to fifth place after the Tesla Model S and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV.
The second generation Prius plug-in hybrid, named Toyota Prius Prime in the US, was unveiled at the 2016 New York International Auto Show, and was released in the U.S. in November 2016. Unlike the first generation model, it is available in all 50 states. Sales in Japan started on February 15, 2017.

6.3. Product line All-electric vehicles
The first generation Toyota RAV4 EV was leased in the United States from 1997 to 2003, and at the lessees request, many units were sold after the vehicle was discontinued. A total of 1.484 were leased and/or sold in California to meet the states CARB mandate for zero-emissions vehicles. As of mid-2012, there were almost 500 units still in use.
In May 2010, Toyota launched a collaboration with Tesla Motors to create electric vehicles. Toyota agreed to purchase US$50 million of Tesla common stock subsequent to the closing of Teslas planned initial public offering. Toyota, with the assistance of Tesla, built 35 converted RAV4s Phase Zero vehicles for a demonstration and evaluation program that ran through 2011. The lithium metal-oxide battery and other power train components were supplied by Tesla Motors. Four years later, Toyota, along with Daimler, began to unwind its position in Tesla. Toyota and Daimler made more than $1 bln from the investment.
The Toyota RAV4 EV Concept was released in September 2012. The RAV4 EV was assembled at Toyotas facility in Woodstock, Ontario along with the regular gasoline version. Tesla built the electric powertrain at its plant at Tesla Factory in Fremont, California, and then shipped them to Canada. The RAV4 EV was sold only in California, beginning with the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles/Orange County, and San Diego. Production was limited to 2.600 units during a three-year period. As of 31 December 2015, a total of 2.340 RAV4 EVs were sold in the U.S. to retail customers. Production ended in September 2014.
A prototype of the Toyota iQ EV Scion iQ EV in the US was exhibited at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show. The Scion iQ EV is the successor to the FT-EV II as an electric vehicle based on the Toyota iQ chassis. Toyota produced three generations of FT-EV concept cars, and the iQ EV is a production version of those concepts, incorporating the technological and design strengths of all three models. The exterior of the production version is based on the FT-EV III concept shown at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show.
The U.S. launch of the Scion iQ EV was announced for 2012, and according to Toyota, for the initial roll-out the iQ EV would not be available to individual consumers, instead, the carmaker decided to focus on fleet customers and car sharing programs. The iQ EV was scheduled to be produced at Toyotas Takaoka Plant in Toyota City beginning in August 2012 and the initial production was planned to be limited to 600 units, with 400 staying in Japan, 100 units destined to the U.S., and the other 100 for Europe. In September 2012, Toyota announced that due to customers concerns about range and charging time, the production of the Scion iQ Toyota eQ in Japan will be limited to about 100 units for special fleet use in Japan and the U.S. only. The iQ EV/eQ was scheduled to be released in both countries in December 2012.
The first 30 iQ EVs were delivered in the U.S. to the University of California, Irvine in March 2013 for use in its Zero Emission Vehicle-Network Enabled Transport ZEV-NET carsharing fleet. Since 2002, the ZEV-NET program has been serving the transport needs of the Irvine community with all-electric vehicles for the critical last mile of commutes from the Irvine train station to the UC campus and local business offices.
In addition, Toyota announced that is backing away from fully electric vehicles. The companys vice chairman, Takeshi Uchiyamada, said: The current capabilities of electric vehicles do not meet society’s needs, whether it may be the distance the cars can run, or the costs, or how it takes a long time to charge." Toyotas emphasis would be re-focused on the hybrid concept, and 21 new hybrid gas-electric models scheduled to be on the market by 2015.
Toyotas project called Ha:mo Harmonious Mobility Network, is using the Toyota i-Road, an all-electric vehicle which combines the potential of both cars and motorbikes. The project is being run in Grenoble, France; Toyota City, Japan; and also Tokyo, Japan.
Toyota unveiled an electric 2-seater kei car in October 2019, named the Ultra-Compact Battery-Electric Vehicle BEV. The range is estimated at 100 km 62 mi, and it has a top speed of 60 km/h 37 mph. It will formally debut at the 2019 Tokyo Motor Show and will go on sale in Japan in late 2020.

6.4. Product line Hydrogen fuel-cell
In 2002, Toyota began a development and demonstration program to test the Toyota FCHV, a hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle based on the Toyota Highlander production SUV. Toyota also built a FCHV bus based on the Hino Blue Ribbon City low-floor bus. Toyota has built several prototypes/concepts of the FCHV since 1997, including the Toyota FCHV-1, FCHV-2, FCHV-3, FCHV-4, and Toyota FCHV-adv. The Toyota FCV-R fuel cell concept car was unveiled at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show. The FCV-R sedan seats four and has a fuel cell stack including a 70 MPa high-pressure hydrogen tank, which can deliver a range of 435 mi 700 km under the Japanese JC08 test cycle. Toyota said the car was planned for launch in about 2015.
In August 2012, Toyota announced its plans to start retail sales of a hydrogen fuel-cell sedan in California in 2015. Toyota expects to become a leader in this technology. The prototype of its first hydrogen fuel cell vehicle will be exhibited at the November 2013 Tokyo Motor Show, and in the United States at the January 2014 Consumer Electronics Show.
Toyotas first hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles to be sold commercially, the Toyota Mirai Japanese for "future", was unveiled at the November 2014 Los Angeles Auto Show. In January 2015, it was announced that production of the Mirai fuel cell vehicle would increase from 700 units in 2015 to approximately 2.000 in 2016 and 3.000 in 2017. Sales in Japan began on December 15, 2014, at a price of ¥6.700.000 ~ US$57.400. The Japanese government plans to support the commercialization of fuel-cell vehicles with a subsidy of ¥2.000.000 ~ US$19.600. Retail sales in the U.S. began in August 2015 at a price of US$57.500 before any government incentives. Initially, the Mirai will only be available in California. The market release in Europe is slated for September 2015, and initially will be available only in the UK, Germany, and Denmark, followed by other countries in 2017. Pricing in Germany starts at €60.000 ~ US$75.140 plus VAT €78.540.
In 2015, Toyota released 5.600 patents for free use until 2020, hoping to promote global development of hydrogen fuel-cell technology.

6.5. Product line Cars
As of 2009, Toyota officially lists approximately 70 different models sold under its namesake brand, including sedans, coupes, vans, trucks, hybrids, and crossovers. Many of these models are produced as passenger sedans, which range from the subcompact Toyota Yaris, compact Corolla, to mid-size Camry and full-size Avalon. Vans include the Previa/Estima, Sienna, and others. Several small cars, such as the xB and tC, were sold under the Scion brand.

6.6. Product line Pickup trucks
Toyota first entered the pickup truck market in 1947 with the SB that was only sold in Japan and limited Asian markets. It was followed in 1954 by the RK renamed in 1959 as the Stout and in 1968 by the compact Hilux. With continued refinement, the Hilux simply known as the Pickup in some markets became famous for being extremely durable and reliable, and many of these trucks from as early as the late 1970s are still on the road today, some with over 300.000 miles. Extended- and crew-cab versions of these small haulers were eventually added, and Toyota continues to produce them today under various names depending on the market.
Riding on the success of the compact pickups in the US, Toyota decided to attempt to enter the traditionally domestic-dominated full-size pickup market, introducing the T100 for the 1993 US model year, with production ending in 1998. While having a bed at the traditional full-size length of 8 feet, the suspension and engine characteristics were still similar to that of a compact pickup. It proved to be as economical and reliable as any typical Toyota pickup, but sales never became what Toyota brass had hoped for. It was criticized as being too small to appeal to the traditional American full-size pickup buyer. Another popular full-size truck essential, a V8 engine, was never available. Additionally, the truck was at first only available as a regular cab, though Toyota addressed this shortcoming and added the Xtracab version in mid-1995.
In 1999 for the 2000 model year, Toyota replaced the T100 with the larger Tundra. The Tundra addressed criticisms that the T100 did not have the look and feel of a legitimate American-style full-size pickup. It also added the V8 engine that the T100 was criticized for not having. However, the Tundra still came up short in towing capacity as well as still feeling slightly carlike. These concerns were addressed with an even larger 2007 redesign. A stronger V6 and a second V8 engine among other things were added to the option list. As of early 2010, the Tundra has captured 16% of the full-size half-ton market in the US. The all-new Tundra was assembled in San Antonio, Texas, US. Toyota assembled around 150.000 Standard and Double Cabs, and only 70.000 Crew Maxs in 2007. The smaller Tacoma which traces its roots back to the original Hilux was also produced at the companys San Antonio facility.
Outside the United States, Toyota produced the Hilux in Standard and Double Cab, gasoline and diesel engine, and 2WD and 4WD versions. The BBCs Top Gear TV show featured two episodes of a Hilux that was deemed "virtually indestructible".

6.7. Product line Luxury-type vehicles
As of 2009, the company sold nine luxury-branded models under its Lexus division, ranging from the LS sedan to RX crossover and LX SUV. Luxury-type sedans produced under the Toyota brand included the Century, Crown, and Crown Majesta. A limited-edition model produced for the Emperor of Japan was the Century Royal. Toyota-branded luxury vehicles tend to be Japan-only.

6.8. Product line Buses
Toyota Coaster minibus
Hino Liesse II
Hino Liesse minibus

6.9. Product line Pleasure boats
In 1997, building on a previous partnership with Yamaha Marine, Toyota created "Toyota Marine", building private ownership motorboats, currently sold only in Japan. A small network in Japan sells the luxury craft at 54 locations, called the "Toyota Ponam" series, and in 2017, a boat was labeled under the Lexus brand name starting May 26, 2017.

7. Motorsports
Toyota has been involved in many global motorsports series. They also represent their Lexus brand in other sports car racing categories. Toyota also makes engines and other auto parts for other Japanese motorsports including Formula Nippon, Super GT, Formula 3, and Toyota Racing Series. Toyota also runs a driver development programme known as the Toyota Young Drivers Program, which they made for funding and educating future Japanese motorsports talent. Toyota Motorsport GmbH, with headquarters in Cologne, Germany, has been responsible for Toyotas major motorsports development including the FIA Formula One World Championship, the FIA World Rally Championship, the Le Mans Series, and most recently the FIA World Endurance Championship. Toyota enjoyed success in all these motorsports categories. In 2002, Toyota entered Formula One as a constructor and engine supplier; however, despite having experienced drivers and a larger budget than many other teams, they failed to match their success in other categories, with five second-place finishes as their best results. On November 4, 2009, Toyota announced they were pulling out of the sport due to the global economic situation. On the 2018 24 Hours of Le Mans, Toyota finally won the race with the number 8 Toyota TS050 Hybrid driven by Sebastien Buemi, Kazuki Nakajima, and Fernando Alonso.
Toyotas nationwide driver hunt of drivers for Etios Motor Racing Series ended up with selection of 25 drivers, who will participate in the race in 2013.

7.1. Motorsports TRD
Toyota Racing Development TRD was brought about to help develop true high-performance racing parts for many Toyota vehicles. TRD has often had much success with their aftermarket tuning parts, as well as designing technology for vehicles used in different types of racing. TRD in the United States is also responsible for Toyotas involvement and development in other forms of motorsports which include NASCAR, NHRA, Indy Racing League, Formula Drift, etc. TRD also made Lexuss performance division "F-Sport".

8.1. Non-automotive activities Aerospace
Toyota is a minority shareholder in Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation, having invested US$67.2 million in the new venture which will produce the Mitsubishi Regional Jet, slated for first deliveries in 2017. Toyota has also studied participation in the general aviation market and contracted with Scaled Composites to produce a proof of concept aircraft, the TAA-1, in 2002.

8.2. Non-automotive activities Philanthropy
Toyota supports a variety of philanthropic work in areas such as education, conservation, safety, and disaster relief.
Some of the organizations that Toyota has worked with in the US include the American Red Cross, the Boys and Girls Club, Leaders in Environmental Action for the Future LEAF, and the National Center for Family Literacy.
The Toyota USA Foundation exists to support education in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
In addition, Toyota works with nonprofits to improve their processes and operations such as the Food Bank For New York City.
Toyota also supports a variety of work in Japan.
The Toyota Foundation takes a global perspective providing grants in the three areas of human and natural environments, social welfare, and education and culture.

8.3. Non-automotive activities Higher education
Toyota established the Toyota Technological Institute in 1981, as Sakichi Toyoda had planned to establish a university as soon as he and Toyota became successful. Toyota Technological Institute founded the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago in 2003. Toyota is supporter of the Toyota Driving Expectations Program, Toyota Youth for Understanding Summer Exchange Scholarship Program, Toyota International Teacher Program, Toyota TAPESTRY, Toyota Community Scholars scholarship for high school students, United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce Internship Program, and Toyota Funded Scholarship. It has contributed to a number of local education and scholarship programs for the University of Kentucky, Indiana, and others.

8.4. Non-automotive activities Robotics
In 2004, Toyota showcased its trumpet-playing robot. Toyota has been developing multitask robots destined for elderly care, manufacturing, and entertainment. A specific example of Toyotas involvement in robotics for the elderly is the Brain Machine Interface. Designed for use with wheelchairs, it "allows a person to control an electric wheelchair accurately, almost in real-time", with his or her mind. The thought controls allow the wheelchair to go left, right, and forward with a delay between thought and movement of just 125 milliseconds. Toyota also played a part in the development of Kirobo, a robotic astronaut.
In 2017, the company introduced T-HR3, a humanoid robot with the ability to be remotely controlled. The robot can copy the motions of a connected person. The 2017 version used wires for the connection but the 2018 version used 5G from a distance up to 10 km.

8.5. Non-automotive activities Agricultural biotechnology
Toyota invests in several small start-up businesses and partnerships in biotechnology, including:
Toyota Floritech Co., Ltd. in Rokkasho-Mura, Kamikita District, Aomori Prefecture
P.T. Toyota Bio Indonesia in Lampung, Indonesia
Toyota Roof Garden Corporation in Miyoshi-Cho, Aichi Prefecture
Australian Afforestation Pty. Ltd. in Western Australia and Southern Australia
Sichuan Toyota Nitan Development Co., Ltd. in Sichuan, China

8.6. Non-automotive activities Sewing machine technology
Toyota developed an oekaki -style sewing machine called the Oekaki Renaissance, which, like others of its type, is designed to allow the user to be able to draw ideas directly onto fabric using the art of free-motion embroidery.

8.7. Non-automotive activities Smart City
Toyota announced at CES 2020 that intends to build a "175-acre high tech, sensor laden metropolis" at the foot of Mt. Fuji. The projected is expected to break ground in 2021, and will be called "Woven City."

9. Environmental record
Toyota implemented its fifth Environmental Action Plan in 2005. The plan contains four major themes involving the environment and the corporations development, design, production, and sales. The five-year plan is directed at the, "arrival of a revitalized recycling and reduction based society". Toyota had previously released its Eco-Vehicle Assessment System Eco-VAS which is a systematic life cycle assessment of the effect a vehicle will have on the environment including production, usage, and disposal. The assessment includes, ". fuel efficiency, emissions and noise during vehicle use, the disposal recovery rate, the reduction of substances of environmental concern, and CO 2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the vehicle from production to disposal." 2008 marks the ninth year for Toyotas Environmental Activities Grant Program which has been implemented every year since 2001. Themes of the 2008 program consist of "Global Warming Countermeasures" and "Biodiversity Conservation."
Since October 2006, Toyotas new Japanese-market vehicle models with automatic transmissions are equipped with an Eco Drive Indicator. The system takes into consideration rate of acceleration, engine and transmission efficiency, and speed. When the vehicle is operated in a fuel-efficient manner, the Eco Drive Indicator on the instrument panel lights up. Individual results vary depending on traffic issues, starting and stopping the vehicle, and total distance traveled, but the Eco Drive Indicator may improve fuel efficiency by as much as 4%. Along with Toyotas eco-friendly objectives on production and use, the company plans to donate US$1 million and five vehicles to the Everglades National Park. The money will be used to fund environmental programs at the park. This donation is part of a program which provides US$5 million and 23 vehicles for five national parks and the National Parks Foundation. However, new figures from the United States National Research Council show that the continuing hidden health costs of the auto industry to the US economy in 2005 amounted to US$56 million.
The United States EPA has awarded Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. TEMA with an ENERGY STAR Sustained Excellence Award in 2007, 2008, and 2009. In 2016, Toyota was recognized as the top company on the Carbon Clean 200 list of the worlds largest clean energy companies.
In 2007, Toyotas Corporate Average Fuel Economy CAFE fleet average of 26.69 mpg ‑US 8.81 L/100 km; 32.05 mpg ‑imp exceeded all other major manufacturers selling cars within the United States. Only sports-car manufacturer Lotus Cars, which sells the Elise and Exige models both powered by Toyotas 2ZZ-GE engine, did better with an average of 30.2 mpg ‑US 7.8 L/100 km; 36.3 mpg ‑imp. For the 2017 model year its CAFE for all vehicles was 32.4 mpg ‑US 7.3 L/100 km; 38.9 mpg ‑imp while Hondas was 38.1 mpg ‑US 6.17 L/100 km; 45.8 mpg ‑imp. In fact, Toyota was the only major manufacturer selling motor vehicles in America to have worse fuel economy and tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions per mile between the 2012 and 2017 model years.
In October 2019, Toyota backed the Trump Administrations proposal that federal authority should override Californias ability to set its own emissions standards for automobiles. The proposal would reduce Californias 2025 fuel efficiency standard from about 54.5 to 37 MPG.

10. Production and sales numbers
Note:Japan production numbers 1937 to 1987. Global production since 1998, global and Japanese production, Japanese sales since 2001 consolidated include Daihatsu and Hino. Citations for years 2014-2016 are for total production and sales and Japan production and sales---U.S. sales figures are not included in these citations.

11. Labor problems Death from overwork
On January 2, 2006, an unnamed chief engineer of the Camry Hybrid, aged 45 years, died from heart failure in his bed.
On February 9, 2002, Kenichi Uchino, aged 30 years, a quality control manager, collapsed then died at work.
June 2010 Chinese labour strike
On June 21, 2010, a Chinese labor strike happened in Tianjin Toyoda Gosei Co, Tianjin. Toyoda Gosei Co supplies parts to Tianjin FAW Toyota Motor Co.

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