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Skoda Auto

SKODA AUTO), commonly called Skoda, is a Czech automobile manufacturer founded in 1895 as Laurin & Klement and headquartered in Mlada Boleslav, Czech Republic.
In 1925 Laurin & Klement was acquired by the industrial conglomerate Skoda Works, which itself became state owned in 1948. After 1991 it was gradually privatized and in 2000 Skoda became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group.
Skoda automobiles are sold in over 100 countries and in 2018, total global sales reached 1.25 million units, an increase of 4.4% from the previous year. The operating profit was €1.6 billion in 2017, an increase of 34.6% over the previous year. As of 2017, Skodas profit margin was the second highest of all VW Group brands after Porsche. SKODA AUTO was founded in 1895 in Mlada Boleslav, Czech Republic.

1. History
The Skoda Works were established as an arms manufacturer in 1859. SKODA AUTO and its predecessor Laurin & Klement is fifth oldest company producing cars and has an unbroken history alongside Daimler, Opel, Peugeot and Tatra.

1.1. History Laurin & Klement
As with many long-established car manufacturers, the company which would become Skoda Auto started in the early 1890s by manufacturing bicycles. Skoda then Laurin & Klement factories were founded in 1896 as a velocipede manufacturer.
In 1894 1894, 26-year-old Vaclav Klement, who was a bookseller in Mlada Boleslav, Kingdom of Bohemia todays Czech Republic, then part of Austria-Hungary, was unable to obtain spare parts to repair his German bicycle. Klement returned his bicycle to the manufacturers, Seidel and Naumann, with a letter, in Czech, asking them to carry out repairs, only to receive a reply, in German, stating: "If you want us to answer you, we insist that you convey your message in a language we understand." Not satisfied with the reply and realising the business potential, Klement, despite having no technical experience, decided to start a bicycle repair shop, which he and Vaclav Laurin opened in 1896 in Mlada Boleslav. Before going into partnership with Klement, Laurin was an established bicycle manufacturer in the nearby town of Turnov.
In 1898, after moving to their newly built factory, the pair bought a Werner "Motocyclette". Laurin & Klements first motorcyclette, powered by an engine mounted on the handlebars driving the front wheels, proved dangerous and unreliable – an early accident on it cost Laurin a front tooth. To design a safer machine with its structure around the engine, the pair wrote to German ignition specialist Robert Bosch for advice on a different electromagnetic system.
Their new Slavia motorcycle made its debut in 1899 and the company became the first motorcycle factory in Central Europe. In 1900, with a company workforce of 32, Slavia exports began and 150 machines were shipped to London for the Hewtson firm. Shortly afterwards, the press credited them as makers of the first motorcycle.
By 1905, the firm was manufacturing automobiles, making it the second-oldest car manufacturer in the Czech lands after Tatra. The company, with an area of 7.800 square metres 0.78 ha, had a workforce of 320 and used 170 special machine-tools, power-driven by 100 horsepower 75 kW of steam power. The first model, Voiturette A, was a success and the company was established both within Austria-Hungary and internationally.

1.2. History Skoda
After World War I the Laurin & Klement company began producing trucks, but in 1924, after running into problems and being affected by a fire on their premises, the company sought a new partner.
Meanwhile, Akciova spolecnost, deive Skodovy zavody Limited Company, formerly the Skoda Works, an arms manufacturer and multi-sector concern in Pilsen which had become one of the largest industrial enterprises in Europe and the largest in Czechoslovakia, sought to enlarge its non-arms manufacturing base and acquired Laurin & Klement in 1925. It also started manufacturing cars in cooperation with Hispano-Suiza. Most of the later production took place under Skodas name.
An assembly line was used for production from 1930 onwards. In the same year a formal spin-off of the car manufacture into a new company, Akciova spolecnost pro automobilovy prumysl or abbreviated ASAP, took place. ASAP remained a wholly owned subsidiary of the Skoda Works and continued to sell cars under the Skoda marque. Apart from the factory in Mlada Boleslav it included also the firms representation, sales offices and services, as well as a central workshop in Prague. At the time, the car factory in Mlada Boleslav covered an area of 215.000 square metres and employed 3.750 blue-collar and 500 white-collar workers.
After a decline caused by the economic depression, Skoda introduced a new line of cars in the 1930s which significantly differed from its previous products. A new design of chassis with backbone tube and all-around independent suspension was developed under the leadership of chief engineer Vladimir Matous and modelled on the one first introduced by Hans Ledwinka in Tatra. First used on model Skoda 420 Standard in 1933, it aimed at solving insufficient torsional stiffness of the ladder frame.
The new design of chassis became the basis for models Popular 845–1.089 cc, Rapid 1.165–1.766 cc, Favorit 1.802–2.091 cc and the Superb 2.492–3.991 cc. While in 1933 Skoda had a 14% share of the Czechoslovak car market and occupied third place behind Praga and Tatra, the new line made it a market leader by 1936, with a 39% share in 1938.

1.3. History World War II
During the occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II the Skoda Works were turned into part of the Reichswerke Hermann Goring serving the German war effort by producing components for military terrain vehicles, military planes, other weapon components and cartridge cases. Vehicle output decreased from 7.052 in 1939 to 683 in 1944, of which only 35 were passenger cars. A total of 316 trucks were produced between January and May 1945. The UK and US air forces bombed the Skoda works repeatedly between 1940 and 1945. The final massive air raid took place on 25 April 1945 and resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Skoda armament works and about 1.000 dead or injured.

1.4. History Post World War II
When, by July 1945, the Mlada Boleslav factory had been reconstructed, production of Skodas first post-World War II car, the 1101 series began. It was essentially an updated version of the pre-World War II Skoda Popular. In the autumn of 1948, Skoda along with all other large manufacturers became part of the communist planned economy, which meant it was separated from the parent company, Skoda Works. In spite of unfavourable political conditions and losing contact with technical development in non-communist countries, Skoda retained a good reputation until the 1960s, producing models such as the Skoda 440 Spartak, 445 Octavia, Felicia and Skoda 1000 MB.
In late 1959, the Skoda Felicia, a compact four-cylinder convertible coupe, was imported into the United States for model year 1960. Its retail price was around US$2.700, for which one could purchase a nicely-equipped V8 domestic car that was larger, more comfortable, and had more luxury and convenience features gasoline retailed for less than 30 cents per gallon, so fuel economy was not of primary importance in the United States at that time. Those Felicias that made it to American ownership soon had a number of reliability problems, further damaging the cars reputation. The Felicia was therefore a poor seller in the States and leftover cars ended up being hied off at a fraction of the original retail list. Since that time, Skoda automobiles have not been imported into the U.S. for retail sale.
In the late 1980s, Skoda then named Automobilove zavody, narodni podnik or abbreviated AZNP was still manufacturing cars that conceptually dated back to the 1960s. Rear-engined models such as the Skoda 105/120 Estelle and Rapid sold steadily and performed well against more modern makes in races such as the RAC Rally in the 1970s and 1980s. They won their class in the RAC rally for 17 years running. They were powered by a 130 brake horsepower 97 kW, 1.289 cubic centimetres 78.7 cu in engine. In spite of its dated image and becoming the subject of negative jokes – What do you call a Skoda with a sunroof? A skip! – Skodas remained a common sight on the roads of the United Kingdom and Western Europe throughout the 1970s and 1980s.
Sport versions of the Estelle and earlier models were produced, using the name "Rapid". Soft-top versions were also available. The Rapid was once described as the "poor mans Porsche", and had significant sales success in the UK during the 1980s.
To drivers in the UK, the vehicles which chugged off Skodas production line in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, embodied all that was wrong with the planned economies of the Soviet satellite states. Of course, that the Skoda became such a figure of fun was in part due to its ubiquity on Britains roads. The company must have been doing something right.
In 1987 the Favorit was introduced, and was one of a trio of compact front-wheel drive hatchbacks from the three main Eastern Bloc manufacturers around that time, the others being VAZs Lada Samara and Zastavas Yugo Sana. The Favorits appearance was the work of the Italian design company Bertone. With some motor technology licensed from western Europe, but still using the Skoda-designed 1289 cc engine, Skoda engineers designed a car comparable to western production. The technological gap was still there, but began closing rapidly. The Favorit was very popular in Czechoslovakia and other Eastern Bloc countries. It also sold well in Western Europe, especially in the UK and Denmark due to its low price and was regarded as solid and reliable. However, it was perceived as having poor value compared with contemporary Western European designs. The Favorits trim levels were improved and it continued to be sold until the introduction of the Felicia in 1994.

1.5. History Volkswagen Group subsidiary
The fall of communism with the Velvet Revolution brought great changes to Czechoslovakia and most industries were subject to privatization. In the case of Skoda Automobile, the state authorities brought in a strong foreign partner. Volkswagen was chosen by the Czech government on 9 December 1990, and, as a result, on 28 March 1991 a joint-venture partnership agreement with Volkswagen took place, marked by the transfer of a 30% share to the Volkswagen Group on 16 April 1991. Until 1990, Skoda was still making its outdated range of rear engine small family cars, although it had started production of the Favorit front-wheel drive hatchback in 1987 as an eventual replacement.
In the following years, Skoda became the fourth brand of the German group, as the Volkswagen Group raised its equity share first on 19 December 1994, to 60.3%, followed on 11 December 1995, to 70%.
In the competition for Skoda, Volkswagen was pitted against French car-maker Renault, which lost out because its strategic plan did not include producing high-value models in the Czech factories; Renault proposed to manufacture the Renault Twingo city car in the Skoda factories.
At the time the decision was made, privatization to a major German company was somewhat controversial, since there was still anti-German sentiment lingering in the Czech Republic from WW2 and its aftermath. However, it could be argued that the subsequent fortunes of other Eastern-Bloc automobile manufacturers such as Lada, AutoVAZ, and of Skoda Works itself – once Skoda Autos parent company – suggested that Volkswagens involvement was not necessarily a result of poor judgement.
Backed by Volkswagen Group expertise and investments, the design – both style and engineering – has improved greatly. The 1994 model Felicia was effectively a reskin of the Favorit, but quality and equipment improvements helped, and in the Czech Republic the car was perceived as good value for money and became popular. Sales improved across Europe, including the United Kingdom, where the Felicia was one of the best-ranking cars in customer satisfaction surveys.
Volkswagen AG chairman Ferdinand Piech personally chose Dirk van Braeckel as head of design, and the subsequent Octavia and Fabia models made their way to the demanding European Union markets. They are built on common Volkswagen Group floorpans. The Fabia, launched at the end of 1999, formed the basis for later versions of the Volkswagen Polo and SEAT Ibiza, while the Octavia, launched in 1996, has shared its floorpan with a host of cars, the most popular of which is the Volkswagen Golf Mk4.
The perception of Skoda in Western Europe has completely changed since the takeover by VW, in stark comparison with the reputation of the cars throughout the 1980s described by some as "the laughing stock" of the automotive world. As technical development progressed and attractive new models were marketed, Skodas image was initially slow to improve. In the UK, a major turnabout was achieved with the ironic "It is a Skoda, honest" campaign, which began in 2000 when the Fabia launched. In a 2003 advertisement on British television, a new employee on the production line is fitting Skoda badges on the car bonnets. When some attractive looking cars come along he stands back, not fitting the badge, since they look so good they "cannot be Skodas". This market campaign worked by confronting Skodas image problem head-on – a tactic which marketing professionals regarded as high risk. By 2005 Skoda was selling over 30.000 cars a year in the UK, a market share of over 1%. For the first time in its UK history, a waiting list developed for deliveries from Skoda. UK owners have consistently ranked the brand at or near the top of customer satisfaction surveys since the late 1990s.

1.6. History Growth strategy
2010 was one of the most important years for Skoda Auto, in terms of both products and management. On 1 September 2010, Prof. Dr. H.C. Winfried Vahland assumed responsibility for the management of the company, becoming the CEO of Skoda Auto. In the same year, Skoda set forth plans to double the companys annual sales to at least 1.5 million by 2018 later known as the Growth Strategy, Czech: Rustova strategie.
At the 2010 Paris Motor Show in September 2010, the company unveiled the Octavia Green E Line. This e-car concept was the forerunner to the e-car test fleet that Skoda released in 2012. The final 1st-generation Octavia Tour was produced at the Mlada Boleslav plant in November 2010. The worldwide production of this model exceeded 1.4 million units since its release in 1996. In 2010 for the first time in history, China overtook German sales to become Skodas largest individual market.
In 2011, Skoda Auto celebrated its 20-year partnership with the Volkswagen Group. More than 75.000 visitors attended an open-house event held in Mlada Boleslav in the April. Earlier that year, the company provided details on its 2018 Growth Strategy: for at least one new or completely revised model to be released every six months. With this in mind, the company redesigned its logo and CI, which was presented at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show. Skodas main attraction at the event was the Vision D design concept; a forerunner to the future 3rd generation Octavia. Skoda presented the Mission L design study at the IAA in Frankfurt am Main in September, which was to become the basis of the companys forthcoming compact model the European Rapid.
In the same year, the company started production of the new Rapid model in Pune, India October 2011, and launched the Skoda Citigo at Volkswagens Bratislava plant November 2011.
In 2012 Skoda introduced two new mass production models. The European version of the Rapid premiered at the Paris Motor Show. This car was a successor to the 1st-generation Octavia in terms of its price bracket. The second model was the 3rd-generation Octavia, which premiered in December 2012. In the same month, local production of the Yeti was launched at the Nizhny Novgorod GAZ factory.
In 2012 Skoda introduced an emission-free fleet of Octavia Green E Line e-cars on Czech roads to be used by external partners. Since internal tests on the fleet in late 2011, the e-fleet had driven more than 250.000 km. During the same year, Skoda celebrated several milestones, including fourteen million Skoda cars being produced since 1905 January, three million Fabias May, 500.000 Superbs at the Kvasiny plant June and 5 years of Skoda operations in China.
Massive rejuvenation of the model range was a major tune for 2013 at Skoda: The Czech car maker launched the third-generation Octavia Combi and Octavia RS both liftback and estate as well as facelifted Superb and Superb Combi. They were accompanied by brand new members of the Rapid family as the Rapid Spaceback, the first Skoda hatchback car in the compact segment, and the Chinese version of the Rapid. The Yeti also faced significant changes. With the facelift, two design variants of Skodas compact SUV are now available: city-like Yeti and rugged Yeti Outdoor. Chinese customers were also given a Yeti with an extended wheelbase.
In 2015, Volkswagen admitted that it had installed pollution-cheating software in many of its cars to fool regulators that its cars met emissions standards when in fact they polluted at much higher-levels than government standards. 1.2 million Skoda cars worldwide were fitted with this emissions-cheating device. Skoda stated that Volkswagen would recall and cover refitting costs for all of the cars affected by the Volkswagen emissions testing scandal.
In 2015 Skoda was voted the most dependable car brand in the UK. A corporate strategy was launched in 2015 to produce a range of all-electric cars from 2019.
Skoda Auto started to manufacture a large, seven-seat SUV Skoda Kodiaq in 2016, it was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in October 2016 and sales began at early 2017. In the second half of 2017 began sales of the new compact-SUV Skoda Karoq, which officially replaced the Skoda Yeti. The automaker introduced in December 2018 a new small family car Skoda Scala. In February 2019, the company introduced in Geneva new subcompact crossover Skoda Kamiq.

2. Electrification strategy
In 2015, new Skoda chairman Bernhard Maier stated that the Volkswagen Group "is working on a modular, new electric platform and we are in the team", and that "there is no alternative to electrification." New Skoda corporate "Strategy 2025", which replaces the previous "Strategy 2018", aims to start production of a fully electric vehicle in 2020, and five electric models across different segments by 2025.
The all-electric car Skoda Enyaq will be available for sale from the second half of 2020. In 2017 Auto Shanghai, Skoda displayed its Vision E concept for an all-electric 300bhp coupe-SUV, with level 3 autonomy capability and 500 kilometres 310 mi range. It is based on the VW MEB platform and Skoda Auto will also manufacture electric-vehicle batteries for the Volkswagen Group in its facility in the Czech Republic. The second development stage, the Skoda Vision iV was revealed in March 2019.
A plug-in hybrid car, Skoda Superb iV is available for sale from early 2020 and a small SUV model Skoda Kamiq with a natural gas-electric hybrid powertrain and a hybrid Fabia from later the same year. By March 2018, the electrification plan was expanded to ten electrified models for 2025: six fully electric cars and four plugin-hybrids. Out of these, five models are to be available by 2020. In 2018, the brand launched its largest-ever investment plan of €2 billion over five years into its electrification.
The brands first fully electric car, a city car Skoda Citigo e iV, is sold from early 2020.

3. Sales and markets
Skoda has maintained sound financial stability over recent years. In 2013 the brand achieved sales revenues totalling €10.3 billion 2012: €10.4 billion. Due to the weak economic situation in many European countries and the expansion of the model range, operating profit reached a modest 522 million euros 2012: €712 million. Skoda achieved a successful start to 2014: As well as recording the highest number of deliveries to customers in a first quarter ever 247.200; up 12.1%, it recorded a significant increase in sales revenue 23.7% to almost 3 billion euros. Operating profit increased 65.2% to 185 million Euros over the previous year.

3.1. Sales and markets Markets
As of August 2016, Skoda was being sold in 102 countries. In 2017, the top markets for Skoda by number of sales are China, Germany, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Poland, Russia, France, Turkey, Italy and Austria. In the Asia-Pacific region, Skoda is also being sold in Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan and India. Skoda is also expanding into emerging markets such as Iran, where imports are to be started from 2018 and production of vehicles by 2020. Expansion strategy also includes Singapore.

4. Production
Skoda cars are now made in factories in the Czech Republic, China, Russia, India and Slovakia. A smaller number of Skoda models are additionally manufactured in Oskemen, Kazakhstan and Solomonovo, Ukraine through local partners. The following table lists the factories and their production models in 2015.

5. Motorsport
The Skoda brand has been engaged in motor sport since 1901, and has gained a number of titles with various vehicles around the world. The team had competed as a manufacturer in the Intercontinental Rally Challenge before it merged with ERC in 2013 and World Rally Championship between 1999 and 2005. Now it competes in the European Rally Championship and WRC-2.
Until the final season of IRC in 2012, Skoda Motorsport was the most successful manufacturer with a total of 27 points, winning the rallying series in 2010–2012. Since 2013, When the two competing series were merged, it continued to compete in the European Rally Championship.
Skoda Motorsport drivers won with the Skoda Fabia S2000 the European Rally Championships in 2012–2014.

5.1. Motorsport World Rally Championship
Following a long history of class victories in lower levels of motorsport, Skoda became a participant in the FIA World Rally Championship in the 1999 season, with World Rally Car models of the Skoda Octavia. Skodas best result with the Octavia WRC was Armin Schwarzs third place at the 2001 Safari Rally. From mid 2003, the Octavia was replaced by the smaller Skoda Fabia. Skoda used the 2004 season to develop the car further, but did not achieve much success the following season. However, at the season-ending Rally Australia, 1995 world champion Colin McRae was running second before retiring. Skoda then withdrew from the series, and the 2006 season saw Skoda represented by the semi-privateer Red Bull Skoda Team. Jan Kopecky drove the Fabia WRC to fifth place at the Rally Catalunya, and as late as the 2007 Rallye Deutschland the Fabia still achieved a fifth-place result, again in the hands of Kopecky. Former works Ford and Citroen driver François Duval also drove a Fabia WRC in 2006 for the privateer First Motorsport team, achieving a sixth-place finish in Catalunya.

5.2. Motorsport World Rally Championship-2
In 2009, Skoda entered the Intercontinental Rally Challenge IRC for the first time, using the Fabia S2000, winning three rallies and finishing second in both the drivers and manufacturers championship. In 2010, Skoda won a total of seven IRC events winning both the manufacturers and driver championship for Juho Hanninen. These achievements were repeated in the following two seasons, with Andreas Mikkelsen as the drivers champion. In 2013, the Intercontinental Rally Challenge was merged with the European Rally Championship ERC and the team gained the drivers championship title once again for Jan Kopecky. The car was also raced by privateers in several championships, including Red Bull, Barwa, Rene Georges and Rufa in the 2010 Super 2000 World Rally Championship.
Skoda Motorsport won the 2015, 2016 and 2017 WRC-2 championships with Skoda Fabia R5.

5.3. Motorsport Bonneville Speedway
In August 2011, a special Skoda Octavia vRS set the world record at the Bonneville Speedway and became the fastest car in the world with an engine up to two litres, when hit 227 mph 365 km/h. The current fastest production Skoda car is the Skoda Superb III, with a top speed of 250 km/h 160 mph and an acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h 0 to 62 mph in 5.8 seconds.

6. Models
1920s
Skoda 422 1929–32
Laurin & Klement MS/540/545 1920–23
Laurin & Klement Skoda 545 1924–27
Skoda 860 1929–32
Skoda 645 1929–34
Skoda 430 1929–36
1930s
Skoda 637 1932–35
Skoda 633 1931–34
Skoda 420 Standard/Rapid/Popular 1933–38
Skoda Superb 1934–43
Skoda 650 1930–34
Skoda Favorit 1936–41
Skoda Rapid 1935–47
1940s
Skoda VOS 1949–52
Skoda 1101 Tudor 1946–49
Skoda 1102 1948–52
Skoda Superb OHV 1946–49
1950s
Skoda 1200 1952–55
Skoda 1201 1955–62
Skoda Octavia 1959–64
Skoda Felicia 1959–64
Skoda 440/445/450 1955–59
1960s
Skoda 1203 1968–99
Skoda 1000 MB 1964–69
Skoda 100/110 1969–77
Skoda Octavia Combi 1964–71
Skoda 1202 1961–73
1980s
Skoda 130/135/136 1984–90
Skoda Favorit/Forman/Pick-up 1987–95
Skoda Garde 1981–84
Skoda Rapid 1984 1984–90
1990s
Skoda Felicia 1994–2001
Skoda Fabia first generation 1999–2007
Skoda Octavia first generation 1996–2004, Tour 2004–10
2000s
Skoda Octavia second generation 2004–2013
Skoda Roomster/Praktik – LAV 2006–2015
Skoda Superb second generation 2008–2015
Skoda Yeti – Mini SUV 2009–2017
Skoda Superb first generation 2001–2008

6.1. Models Current models
Skoda Kamiq – crossover SUV 2018–present
Skoda Scala – Small family car 2018–present
Skoda Kodiaq – SUV 2016–present
Skoda Octavia IV – Small family car 2019–present
Skoda Fabia III – Supermini 2014–present
Skoda Superb III – Compact executive car 2015–present
Skoda Karoq – compact SUV 2017–present
Skoda Citigo – City car 2011–present

6.2. Models Concept cars
Joyster 2006
Skoda 720 1967–1972
Vision C 2013
Yeti II 2006
Tudor 2002
Vision X 2018, production version in 2019
783 Favorit Coupe 1987
Roomster 2003
Vision E 2017, production version in 2020
Ahoj 2002
Skoda 110 Super Sport Ferat 1971
Fabia Super 2007
Skoda 973 Babeta 1949
Fabia Paris Edition 2002
Felicia Golden Prague 1998
Skoda F3 1964
MissionL 2011
Skoda 1100 Type 968 1958
Skoda 1100 GT 1968
Vision D 2011

6.3. Models 1900s
SKODA AUTO was founded in 1895 in Mlada Boleslav, Czech Republic.
Laurin & Klement C 1906–08
Laurin & Klement FF 1907
Laurin & Klement EN 1909–10
Laurin & Klement FCS 1908–09
Laurin & Klement L/LO 1909–11
Laurin & Klement F 1907–09
Laurin & Klement FN/GDV/RC 1909–13
Laurin & Klement D 1906–07
Laurin & Klement G 1908–11
Laurin & Klement FC 1907–09
Laurin & Klement E 1906–09
Laurin & Klement HO/ HL/HLb 1907–13
Laurin & Klement FDO/FDL 1909–15
Laurin & Klement A 1905–07
Laurin & Klement FCR 1909
Laurin & Klement B 1906–08
Laurin & Klement BS 1908–09
Laurin & Klement DO/DL 1909–12
Laurin & Klement C2 1907–08
Laurin & Klement B2 1907–08

6.4. Models 1910s
Laurin & Klement Ms 1914–20
Laurin & Klement DN 1912–15
Laurin & Klement Sh/Sk 1914–17
Laurin & Klement ENS 1910–11
Laurin & Klement M/Mb/MO 1913–15
Laurin & Klement T/Ta 1914–21
Laurin & Klement Si/Sl/Sm/So/200/205 1916–24
Laurin & Klement RK 1912–16
Laurin & Klement S/Sa 1911–16
Laurin & Klement LK 1911–12
Laurin & Klement Sd/Se/Sg/Sk 1913–17
Laurin & Klement Md/Me/Mf/Mg/Mh/Mi/Ml/300/305 1917–23
Laurin & Klement O/OK 1913–16
Laurin & Klement MK/400 1913–24
Laurin & Klement K/Kb/LOKb 1911–15
Laurin & Klement Sb/Sc 1912–15

6.5. Models 1920s
Skoda 422 1929–32
Laurin & Klement MS/540/545 1920–23
Laurin & Klement Skoda 545 1924–27
Skoda 860 1929–32
Skoda 645 1929–34
Skoda 430 1929–36

6.6. Models 1940s
Skoda VOS 1949–52
Skoda 1101 Tudor 1946–49
Skoda 1102 1948–52
Skoda Superb OHV 1946–49

6.7. Models 1950s
Skoda 1200 1952–55
Skoda 1201 1955–62
Skoda Octavia 1959–64
Skoda Felicia 1959–64
Skoda 440/445/450 1955–59

6.8. Models 1960s
Skoda 1203 1968–99
Skoda 1000 MB 1964–69
Skoda 100/110 1969–77
Skoda Octavia Combi 1964–71
Skoda 1202 1961–73

6.9. Models 1980s
Skoda 130/135/136 1984–90
Skoda Favorit/Forman/Pick-up 1987–95
Skoda Garde 1981–84
Skoda Rapid 1984 1984–90

6.10. Models 1990s
Skoda Felicia 1994–2001
Skoda Fabia first generation 1999–2007
Skoda Octavia first generation 1996–2004, Tour 2004–10

6.11. Models 2000s
Skoda Octavia second generation 2004–2013
Skoda Roomster/Praktik – LAV 2006–2015
Skoda Superb second generation 2008–2015
Skoda Yeti – Mini SUV 2009–2017
Skoda Superb first generation 2001–2008

7. Logo
In 1923 two different trademarks were registered at the Office for Innovation and Model Registration in Plzen. The first depicted a winged arrow pointing to the right with five feathers in a circle and the second was a winged arrow with three feathers. The famous winged arrow with three feathers still forms the Skoda logo today. The SKODA text was added to the logo in 1936. The arrow represents speed, the wings progress and freedom, the eye precision and the circle unity, completeness, world and harmony. The story goes that, on his travels through the US, Emil Skoda had once been so taken with a Native Americans feathered headdress that he had returned to Pilsen with a relief image which inspired the logo.

8. Bibliography
Margolius, Ivan & Meisl, Charles 1992. Skoda Laurin & Klement. London: Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-237-4.
Jetschgo, Johannes 2019. Skoda. A Car That Made History. Prague: Vitalis. ISBN 978-3-89919-652-8

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