Food and water in New York City

In new York, there is an extensive water supply system that supports multiple programs and infrastructure for urban food supply. The city authorities, institutions and organizations collaborate with rural farmers to grow food more locally, and to protect waterways in the new York area. In the new York city Department of education working in school-time and summer Breakfast / lunch program. However, in new York city is also devoid of supermarkets within a few blocks and the city to counteract this issue, providing them with additional street vendors to operate in the city. To promote food safety in new York also has a restaurant-grading system, which it introduced in 2010. Due to various food programs, new York has become a model for food systems at the international level.

1. Protection of the watershed and local cuisine. (Защита водораздела и местной кухни)
Officials, labor organizers, non-profit organizations, advocacy groups, community and residents have greater dependence on farmers to develop new York citys local food. The process of connecting households in the cities of new York markets were largely built on the fact that new supply York city water comes from a protected watershed in the Catskill mountains in upstate new York. New power system York city water, the largest surface storage and supply complex in the world, provides 1.2 billion gallons 4.500.000 m3 of water per day, and most of this water flowing out of state. This water is not filtered, and the filtration system will be required in the construction of 8-10 billion dollars and also $1 million in daily maintenance. Instead, the new York city watershed protected harsh new York Department of environmental constraints that prevent pathogens and nutrients from entering the water supply. The result is protection of the watershed, new York is one of four major cities in the United States with drinking water that is pure enough to not require treatment at wastewater treatment plants. However, the use of such stringent regulations is costly new York state farmers.

1.1. Protection of the watershed and local cuisine. Greenmarket. (Гринмаркет)
To protect the water supply from runoff and development of regional agriculture, rural and urban new Yorkers developed an Alliance called new York city watershed whole farm program, which promotes sustainable development of agriculture in the state of new York. With financial assistance from city, state farmers, reduce pathogens, nutrients, sediment and pesticide runoff. Meanwhile, the urban population of new York acts as the local market for farmers of the state, particularly through Greenmarket, a farmers market, founded in 1976, the Council on environment of new York. State farmers to sell their products in places of entertainment.
Greenmarket provides regional small family farmers opportunities to sell their fruits, vegetables and other agricultural products on the markets of the city. The program expanded to 45 markets in 2006 - the largest expansion in its 30-year history - but as a result of decomposition of the Greenmarket were too small or too seldom patronized to be profitable. The most famous place of amusement is square Greenmarket Union, held four days a week throughout the year. In 2003 to 250.000 customers a week bought 1.000 varieties of fruits and vegetables in the market.

1.2. Protection of the watershed and local cuisine. School Lunches. (Школьные Обеды)
New York offers more than 40.000 meals of children based on the program SchoolFoods. Most of the fruits served in the new York city Department of education-operated public and Charter schools is local. The draft new York state apples to new York city school cafeterias has also increased fruit consumption among school children. As of 2007, the political work was focused on the task of bringing more local food to school Lunches to ensure children have healthy food in support of agriculture in the region. However, there is no plan to expand the program as of 2015.
In the NYCDOE also has a summer-meals program is operated SchoolFoods, which offers free Lunches for children up to 18 years. These summer Lunches are distributed in more than 1.100 parks, pools, libraries, schools and shelters every year. Were distributed in the summer of 2012 more than 7 million meals.

2. Crisis supermarket. (Кризис супермаркет)
New York is faced with the problem of lack of a supermarket within a few blocks, which is closely related epidemics of disease. At the request of the municipality, the Department of city planning studied supermarket need in the city. As a result, in April 2008, the Department found widespread shortage of supermarkets, the identification of several "food deserts." He identified food deserts as a key factor in why more than 700.000 people in new York had diabetes, over 1.1 million new Yorkers are obese and another 2 million children were overweight.
Health problems, particularly prevalent in minority communities. For example, in supermarkets mostly minorities Harlem are 30 percent less than the mostly-white Upper East side, while 20 percent of Upper East side Bodegas carried leafy green vegetables, only 3% of respondents in Harlem did. Three million new Yorkers live in areas with a high need for grocery stores and supermarkets such as Harlem and Washington heights in Manhattan, Bushwick, East new York, sunset Park in Brooklyn, Corona, Jamaica and far Rockaway in Queens, the South Bronx, Williamsbridge, Wakefield, and Pelham Parkway in the Bronx, and St. George and Stapleton in Staten island show the greatest need for full online shopping.
In February 2008, the speaker of city Council Christine Quinn announced the creation of the Commission, the supermarket across the state that would identify state and local policy decisions for the expansion of supermarkets and to keep them open. The Commission will operate under the auspices of the task nutrition and food Bank of new York, in collaboration with the coordinator of the urban food policy and food industry Alliance. At the same time workers organizations, food industry and trade, local 1500, which represents grocery store workers, working to create healthy food for all new Yorkers through supermarkets, community-supported agriculture, urban agriculture and farmers markets.

2.1. Crisis supermarket. The "green" basket. ("Зеленая" корзина)
In a continued effort to increase access to healthy food, the city has created 1.000 new "green cart" permits in 2008. These permissions were designed for street vendors who exclusively sell fresh fruits and vegetables should be raw and whole. These permissions can be used only in neighborhoods where 15 percent or more of the population reported having consumed zero servings of fruits or vegetables in the previous 24 hours. Local businesses were initially opposed such initiative, but a reduction in the number of permits allowed programs needs to be signed into law. After the program was approved, the city received funding and support from a number of partners, which will help to further the program.
The study 2014 Columbia University school of international and public Affairs showed that although there were only 166 green carts in operation, these green carts was to play an important role in increasing exposure to healthy food in poor neighborhoods in Manhattan, the Bronx, Queens and Brooklyn. The same study found that these green carts or on Staten island.

3. The evaluation system restaurant. (Система оценки ресторан)
The evaluation system for new York citys 24.000 restaurants were launched in July 2010. The inspectors of the restaurant appear in the restaurant to check his hygiene, and then give the ranking A, B, or C, depending on how many code violations at the restaurant. "A" class is considered the best grade from 0 to 13 violations with the highest level of cleanliness, And the "B" class shows 14 to 27 violations, and "C" class, the worst class, shows at least 28 violations. Then the restaurants get posters that restaurants classes and place them in a prominent place. Each poster is embossed and labeled the number as anti-counterfeiting measures. Restaurateurs who receive a "B" or "C" may request reconsideration of their restaurants, getting a "to class" posters at the same time. As part of the launch, the Department of new York health and mental hygiene has hired 23 inspectors, bringing the total number of inspectors to 180. It has also increased the number of annual visits from 60.000 to 85.000.
Michael Bloomberg, mayor of new York city, said that this practice was designed to reduce the number of diseases and enhancing food security. However, some restaurants are not regulated by signing up as supermarkets or warehouses. Within 18 months of the introduction of grading systems, Salmonella infections fell by 14%, but the total amount of fines issued has increased by more than 145%, which caused great criticism. In 2014, the rating system was changed to reduce penalties. In 2016, ninety-three percent of restaurants "a" grade, the highest percentage in the history of the grading system.

4. International model. (Международная модель)
Due to the fact that urban and rural residents of new York have collaborated to create a secure ecosystem that brings healthy food and clean water to a large proportion of the urban population, new York has become an international model food systems. The United Nations has invited new York city farmers, workers and sellers, and non-governmental organizations to act as representatives of the UN Commission on sustainable development at headquarters in new York. The city hosted the ONS of the city and links farm showcase in may 2008 at a show in new York urban and rural areas of the States partnership with the international leaders.

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