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Lamborghini

Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in SantAgata Bolognese. The company is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi.
Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S.p.A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company was noted for using a rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive. Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. The firms ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978. American Chrysler Corporation took control of Lamborghini in 1987 and sold it to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group VPower Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division.
New products and model lines were introduced to the brands portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand. In the late 2000s, during the worldwide financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent.
Lamborghini currently produces the V12-powered Aventador and the V10-powered Huracan, along with the Urus SUV powered by a twin-turbo V8 engine. In addition, the company produces V12 engines for offshore powerboat racing. Lamborghini Trattori, founded in 1948 by Ferruccio Lamborghini, is headquartered in Pieve di Cento, Italy and continues to produce tractors.

1. History
Manufacturing magnate Italian Ferruccio Lamborghini founded the company in 1963 with the objective of producing a refined grand touring car to compete with offerings from established marques such as Ferrari. The companys first models, such as the 350 GT, were released in the mid 1960s. Lamborghini was noted for the 1966 Miura sports coupe, which used a rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive layout.
Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first ten years, but sales fell in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. Ferruccio Lamborghini sold the company to Georges-Henri Rossetti and Rene Leimer and retired in 1974. The company went bankrupt in 1978, and was placed in the receivership of brothers Jean-Claude and Patrick Mimran in 1980. The Mimrans purchased the company out of receivership by 1984 and invested heavily in the its expansion. Under the Mimrans management, Lamborghinis model line was expanded from the Countach to include the Jalpa sports car and the LM002 high performance off-road vehicle.
The Mimrans sold Lamborghini to the Chrysler Corporation in 1987. After replacing the Countach with the Diablo and discontinuing the Jalpa and the LM002, Chrysler sold Lamborghini to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group VPower Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and VPower sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the groups Audi division. New products and model lines were introduced to the brands portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand Lamborghini. In the late 2000s, during the worldwide financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghinis sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent.

2.1. Products Automobiles
As of the 2018 model year, Lamborghinis automobile product range consists of three model lines, two of which are mid-engine two-seat sports cars while the third one is a front engined, all-wheel drive SUV. The V12-powered Aventador line consists of the LP 740–4 Aventador S coupe and roadster. The V10-powered Huracan line currently includes the all-wheel-drive LP 610-4 coupe and spyder, the low cost rear-wheel-drive LP 580-2 coupe and spyder and the most powerful, track oriented LP 640-4 Performante coupe and spyder. With the intention of doubling its sales volume by 2019, Lamborghini also added an SUV named Urus in its line-up which is powered by a twin-turbo V8 engine and utilises a front engine, all-wheel drive layout.

2.2. Products Marine engines
Motori Marini Lamborghini produces a large V12 marine engine block for use in World Offshore Series Class 1 powerboats. A Lamborghini branded marine engine displaces approximately 8.171 cc 8.2 L and outputs approximately 940 hp 700 kW.

2.3. Products Lamborghini motorcycle
In the mid-1980s, Lamborghini produced a limited-production run of a 1.000 cc sports motorcycle. UK weekly newspaper Motor Cycle News reported in 1994 – when featuring an example available through an Essex motorcycle retailer – that 24 examples were produced with a Lamborghini alloy frame having adjustable steering head angle, Kawasaki GPz1000RX engine/transmission unit, Ceriani front forks and Marvic wheels. The bodywork was plastic and fully integrated with front fairing merged into fuel tank and seat cover ending in a rear tail-fairing. The motorcycles were designed by Lamborghini stylists and produced by French business Boxer Bikes.

2.4. Products Branded merchandise
Lamborghini licenses its brand to manufacturers that produce a variety of Lamborghini-branded consumer goods including scale models, clothing, accessories, bags, electronics and laptop computers.

3. Motorsport
In contrast to his rival Enzo Ferrari, Ferruccio Lamborghini had decided early on that there would be no factory-supported racing of Lamborghinis, viewing motorsport as too expensive and too draining on company resources. This was unusual for the time, as many sports car manufacturers sought to demonstrate the speed, reliability, and technical superiority through motorsport participation. Enzo Ferrari in particular was known for considering his road car business mostly a source of funding for his participation in motor racing. Ferruccios policy led to tensions between him and his engineers, many of whom were racing enthusiasts; some had previously worked at Ferrari. When Dallara, Stanzani, and Wallace began dedicating their spare time to the development of the P400 prototype, they designed it to be a road car with racing potential, one that could win on the track and also be driven on the road by enthusiasts. When Ferruccio discovered the project, he allowed them to go ahead, seeing it as a potential marketing device for the company, while insisting that it would not be raced. The P400 went on to become the Miura. The closest the company came to building a true race car under Lamborghinis supervision were a few highly modified prototypes, including those built by factory test driver Bob Wallace, such as the Miura SV-based "Jota" and the Jarama S-based "Bob Wallace Special".
In the mid-1970s, while Lamborghini was under the management of Georges-Henri Rossetti, Lamborghini entered into an agreement with BMW to develop, then manufacture 400 cars for BMW in order to meet Group 4 homologation requirements. BMW lacked experience developing a mid-engined vehicle and believed that Lamborghinis experience in that area would make Lamborghini an ideal choice of partner. Due to Lamborghinis shaky finances, Lamborghini fell behind schedule developing the cars structure and running gear. When Lamborghini failed to deliver working prototypes on time, BMW took the program in house, finishing development without Lamborghini. BMW contracted with Baur to produce the car, which BMW named the M1, delivering the first vehicle in October 1978.
In 1985, Lamborghinis British importer developed the Countach QVX, in conjunction with Spice Engineering, for the 1986 Group C championship season. One car was built, but lack of sponsorship caused it to miss the season. The QVX competed in only one race, the non-championship 1986 Southern Suns 500 km race at Kyalami in South Africa, driven by Tiff Needell. Despite the car finishing better than it started, sponsorship could once again not be found and the programme was cancelled.
Lamborghini was an engine supplier in Formula One for the 1989 through 1993 Formula One seasons. It supplied engines to Larrousse 1989–1990.1992–1993, Lotus 1990, Ligier 1991, Minardi 1992, and to the Modena team in 1991. While the latter is commonly referred to as a factory team, the company saw themselves as a supplier, not a backer. The 1992 Larrousse–Lamborghini was largely uncompetitive but noteworthy in its tendency to spew oil from its exhaust system. Cars following closely behind the Larrousse were commonly coloured yellowish-brown by the end of the race. Lamborghinis best result was achieved with Larrousse at the 1990 Japanese Grand Prix, when Aguri Suzuki finished third on home soil.
In late 1991, a Lamborghini Formula One motor was used in the Konrad KM-011 Group C sports car, but the car only lasted a few races before the project was canceled. The same engine, re-badged a Chrysler, Lamborghinis then-parent company, was tested by McLaren towards the end of the 1993 season, with the intent of using it during the 1994 season. Although driver Ayrton Senna was reportedly impressed with the engines performance, McLaren pulled out of negotiations, choosing a Peugeot engine instead, and Chrysler ended the project.
Two racing versions of the Diablo were built for the Diablo Supertrophy, a single-model racing series held annually from 1996 to 1999. In the first year, the model used in the series was the Diablo SVR, while the Diablo 6.0 GTR was used for the remaining three years. Lamborghini developed the Murcielago R-GT as a production racing car to compete in the FIA GT Championship, the Super GT Championship and the American Le Mans Series in 2004. The cars highest placing in any race that year was the opening round of the FIA GT Championship at Valencia, where the car entered by Reiter Engineering finished third from a fifth-place start. In 2006, during the opening round of the Super GT championship at Suzuka, a car run by the Japan Lamborghini Owners Club garnered the first victory in class by an R-GT. A GT3 version of the Gallardo has been developed by Reiter Engineering. A Murcielago R-GT entered by All-Inkl.com racing, driven by Christophe Bouchut and Stefan Mucke, won the opening round of the FIA GT Championship held at Zhuhai International Circuit, achieving the first major international race victory for Lamborghini.

4.1. Marketing Brand identity
The world of bullfighting is a key part of Lamborghinis identity. In 1962, Ferruccio Lamborghini visited the Seville ranch of Don Eduardo Miura, a renowned breeder of Spanish fighting bulls. Lamborghini, a Taurus himself, was so impressed by the majestic Miura animals that he decided to adopt a raging bull as the emblem for the automaker he would open shortly.

4.2. Marketing Vehicle nomenclature
After producing two cars with alphanumeric designations, Lamborghini once again turned to the bull breeder for inspiration. Don Eduardo was filled with pride when he learned that Ferruccio had named a car for his family and their line of bulls; the fourth Miura to be produced was unveiled to him at his ranch in Seville.
The automaker would continue to draw upon the bullfighting connection in future years. The Islero was named for the Miura bull that killed the famed bullfighter Manolete in 1947. Espada is the Spanish word for sword, sometimes used to refer to the bullfighter himself. The Jaramas name carried a special double meaning; though it was intended to refer only to the historic bullfighting region in Spain, Ferruccio was concerned about confusion with the also historic Jarama motor racing track.
After christening the Urraco after a bull breed, in 1974, Lamborghini broke from tradition, naming the Countach not for a bull, but for contacc. The Sesto Elemento shares the same V10 engine found in the Lamborghini Gallardo. Lamborghini hopes to signal a shift in the companys direction from making super cars focused on top speed to producing more agile, track focused cars with the Sesto Elemento. The concept car can reach 0–62 mph 100 km/h in 2.5 seconds and can reach a top speed of over 180 mph.
At the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, Lamborghini unveiled the Aventador J – a roofless, windowless version of the Lamborghini Aventador. The Aventador J uses the same 700 hp engine and seven-speed transmission as the standard Aventador.
At the 2012 Beijing Motor Show, Lamborghini unveiled the Urus SUV. This is the first SUV built by Lamborghini since the LM002.
As part of the celebration of 50 years of Lamborghini, the company created the Egoista. Egoista is for one persons driving and only one Egoista is to be made.
At the 2014 Paris Motor Show, Lamborghini unveiled the Asterion LPI910-4 hybrid concept car. Named after the half-man, half-bull hybrid Minotaur of Greek legend, it is the first hybrid Lamborghini in the history of the company. Utilizing the Huracans 5.2 litre V10 producing 607 hp 453 kW; 615 PS, along with one electric motor mounted on the transaxle and an additional two on the front axle, developing an additional 300 hp 224 kW; 304 PS. This puts the power at a combined figure of 907 hp 676 kW; 920 PS. The 0–100 km/h 62 mph time is claimed to be just above 3 seconds, with a claimed top speed of 185 mph 298 km/h.

5. Corporate affairs Structure
As of 2011, Lamborghini is structured as a wholly owned subsidiary of AUDI AG named Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A.
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. controls five principal subsidiaries: Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A., a manufacturer of motorcycles; Italdesign Giugiaro S.p.A., a 90.1%-owned design and prototyping firm that provides services to the entire Volkswagen Group; MML S.p.A. Motori Marini Lamborghini, a manufacturer of marine engine blocks; and Volkswagen Group Italia S.p.A. formerly Autogerma S.p.A., which sells Audi and other Volkswagen Group vehicles in Italy.
Sales results
By sales, the most important markets in 2004 for Lamborghinis sports cars were the U.S. 41%, Germany 13%, Great Britain 9% and Japan 8%. Prior to the launch of the Gallardo in 2003, Lamborghini produced approximately 400 vehicles per year; in 2011 Lamborghini produced 1.711 vehicles.

6.1. Licensing Automoviles Lamborghini Latinoamerica
Automoviles Lamborghini Latinoamerica S.A. de C.V. Lamborghini Automobiles of Latin America Public Limited Company is an authorized distributor and manufacturer of Lamborghini-branded vehicles and merchandise in Latin America and South America.
In 1995, Indonesian corporation MegaTech, Lamborghinis owner at the time, entered into distribution and license agreements with Mexican businessman Jorge Antonio Fernandez Garcia. The agreements give Automoviles Lamborghini Latinoamerica S.A. de C.V. the exclusive distributorship of Lamborghini vehicles and branded merchandise in Latin America and South America. Under the agreements, Automoviles Lamborghini is also allowed to manufacture Lamborghini vehicles and market them worldwide under the Lamborghini brand.
Automoviles Lamborghini has produced two rebodied versions of the Diablo called the Eros and the Coatl. In 2015, Automoviles Lamborghini transferred the IP-rights to the Coatl foundation chamber of commerce no. 63393700 in The Netherlands in order to secure these rights and to make them more marketable. The company has announced the production of a speedboat called the Lamborghini Glamour.

7. Museo Lamborghini
This two-storey museum is attached to the headquarters, and covers the history of Lamborghini cars and sport utility vehicles, showcasing a variety of modern and vintage models. The museum uses displays of cars, engines and photos to provide a history and review important milestones of Lamborghini.

8. Museo Ferruccio Lamborghini
A 9.000 square-foot museum about Ferruccio Lamborghini houses several cars, industrial prototypes, sketches, personal objects and family photos from Ferruccios early life.

Lamborghini Gallardo

The Lamborghini Gallardo is a sports car built by the Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini from 2003 to 2013. It is Lamborghinis first best-selling mo...

Lamborghini Murcielago

The Lamborghini Murcielago is a sports car produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini between 2001 and 2010. Successor to the Diablo and flagshi...

Lamborghini Aventador

The Lamborghini Aventador is a mid-engine sports car produced by the Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini. In keeping with Lamborghini tradition, the ...

Lamborghini Reventon

The Lamborghini Reventon is a mid-engine sports car that debuted at the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show. Its top speed is 330 km/h. The official press release stat...

Lamborghini 400 GT

The first 400 GT, commonly referred to as simply the 400 GT or 400 GT Interim, was essentially the older 350 GT featuring an enlarged, 3.929 cc V12 engine, w...

Lamborghini Jalpa

The Lamborghini Jalpa is an entry level sports car produced by the Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini from 1981 to 1988. it debuted at the 1981 Gene...

Lamborghini Huracan

The Lamborghini Huracan is a sports car manufactured by Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini replacing the previous V10 offering, the Gallardo. The Hu...

Lamborghini Jarama

The Lamborghini Jarama is a 2+2 grand tourer manufactured and marketed by Italian car manufacturer Lamborghini between 1970 and 1976. It was styled by Berton...

Lamborghini Centenario

The Lamborghini Centenario is a limited production sports car based on the Lamborghini Aventador which was unveiled at the 2016 Geneva Motor Show to commemor...

Lamborghini Urus

The Lamborghini Urus is an SUV manufactured by Italian automobile manufacturer Lamborghini. It was unveiled on 4 December 2017 and was put on the market for ...

Lamborghini 350 GT

The Lamborghini 350 GT was a grand tourer manufactured by Lamborghini between 1964 and 1966. It was the first production vehicle produced by Lamborghini. The...

Lamborghini Diablo

The Lamborghini Diablo is a high-performance mid-engine sports car that was built by Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini between 1990 and 2001. It is...

Lamborghini Miura

The Lamborghini Miura is a sports car produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini between 1966 and 1973. The car was the first supercar with a rear mid-engined...

Zagato Raptor

The Zagato Raptor, sometimes referred to as the Lamborghini Raptor, is a concept car design created in 1996 by Zagato in partnership with Alain Wicki for Lam...

Lamborghini Veneno

The Lamborghini Veneno is a limited production high performance sportscar manufactured by Italian automobile manufacturer Lamborghini. Based on the Lamborghi...

Lamborghini LM002

The Lamborghini LM002 aka "Lamborghini truck" is an off-road Truck manufactured by Lamborghini between 1986 and 1993. The LM002 was an unusual departure for ...

Lamborghini Estoque

The Lamborghini Estoque is a one-off concept car built by Italian automobile manufacturer Lamborghini. Unlike almost all production Lamborghini models, which...

Lamborghini Asterion

The Lamborghini Asterion LPI 910-4 is a electric car manufactured by Italian automobile manufacturer Lamborghini, which was unveiled at the 2014 Paris Motor ...

Lamborghini Silhouette

The Lamborghini Silhouette P300 is a two-door two-seat mid-engined rear-wheel drive sports car, that was made in small numbers by Lamborghini between 1976 an...

Lamborghini Islero

The Lamborghini Islero is a grand tourer produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini between 1968 and 1969. It was the replacement for the 400GT and featured t...

Lamborghini Espada

The Espada S3 was launched in 1972. With this revision, the interior now incorporated a redesigned aluminum-trimmed instrument panel that kept all instrument...

Lamborghini Urraco

The Lamborghini Urraco is a 2+2 sports car manufactured by Italian automaker Lamborghini, introduced at the Turin Auto Show in 1970, marketed for model years...

Lamborghini Portofino

The Lamborghini Portofino is a concept car developed for Lamborghini by Kevin Verduyn, one of Chryslers chief designers. Introduced at the 1987 Frankfurt Aut...

Lamborghini 350GTV

The Lamborghini 350 GTV was a Lamborghini prototype and forerunner of its first production model, the 350 GT, presented to the public at the 1963 Turin Auto ...

Lamborghini Sesto Elemento

The Lamborghini Sesto Elemento is a high-performance limited edition lightweight track-only car produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini, which debuted at t...

Lamborghini Countach

The Lamborghini Countach is a rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive sports car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Lamborghini from 1974 to 1990. It ...

Lambo 291

The Lambo 291 was a Formula One car designed by Mauro Forghieri for use by the Modena team during the 1991 Formula One season. Its best finish was at the Uni...

Lamborghini Trattori

Lamborghini Trattori is an Italian tractor manufacturer. It was founded in 1948 in Cento by Ferruccio Lamborghini, who later went on to establish Lamborghini...