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SEAT

SEAT, S.A. is a Spanish automobile manufacturer with its head office in Martorell, Spain. It was founded on May 9, 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria, a Spanish state-owned industrial holding company. It quickly became the largest supplier of cars in Spain. In 1986, the Spanish government sold SEAT to the German Volkswagen Group of which it remains a wholly owned subsidiary.
The headquarters of SEAT, S.A. are located at SEATs industrial complex in Martorell near Barcelona. By 2000, annual production peaked at over 500.000 units; in total up to 2006, over 16 million cars have been produced including more than 6 million from the Martorell plant, with three-quarters of the annual production being exported to over 70 countries worldwide.
SEAT today is the only major Spanish car manufacturer with the ability and infrastructure to develop its own cars in-house.

1.1. Facilities Martorell
Its headquarters and main manufacturing facilities are located in Martorell, an industrial town located some 30 km northwest of Barcelona, with a production capacity of around 500.000 units per annum. The plant was opened by King Juan Carlos of Spain on February 22, 1993, becoming the main plant and accompanying SEATs assembly plant by the coast in Barcelonas freeport zone Zona Franca. A rail connection between SEATs Martorell and Zona Franca complexes facilitates vehicle and parts transportation between the two sites.
The industrial complex in Martorell also hosts the facilities of SEAT Sport, SEATs Technical Center, Research and Development Center RD, Design Center, Prototypes Centre of Development, SEAT Service Center also incorporating the After-Sales Service division, the Customer Services division and the Catalunya Motor dealership, as well as the Genuine Parts Centre for SEAT, Volkswagen, Audi, and Skoda brands. The plant can sometimes aid the former SEAT plant in Pamplona, now owned by Volkswagen-Audi-Espana, S.A.
From 2011 onwards, this plant also produces the Audi Q3 small SUV.

1.2. Facilities Zona Franca
The development and assembly facilities are some of the newest within the Volkswagen Group, with the ability to produce cars not only for its own brand, but also for other Volkswagen Group brands, such as Volkswagen and Audi. For example, the development and design of several Audi models and also several Audi development projects took place there.
The Barcelona Zona Franca site includes the SEAT Training Centre, the Zona Franca Press Shop factory, producing stamped body parts, and the Barcelona Gearbox del Prat plant, producing gearboxes not only for SEAT but also for other Volkswagen Group marques ; the latter plant was awarded the Volkswagen Excellence Award in 2009 by the Volkswagen Group for high-quality production process and product.

1.3. Facilities Others
Another plant owned directly by SEAT from 1975 was the Landaben plant in Pamplona, but in December 1993 its ownership was transferred to the Volkswagen Group subsidiary "Volkswagen-Audi-Espana, S.A.", and the site today is producing Volkswagen cars in Spain. However, SEATs Martorell site still provides support to Volkswagens operations in the Pamplona plant when necessary, as it did after a serious fire in the paint shop in the Landaben VW plant in April 2007.
Factories of the Volkswagen Group currently producing SEAT models also include the Bratislava site in Slovakia, the Palmela AutoEuropa factory in Portugal, and the Sidi Khettab factory in Algeria, while in the past other plants were involved too in producing SEAT models, such as the factories in Germany Wolfsburg and Belgium. Future plans include a new research and development centre in the city of Barcelona in the field of environmental and energy efficiency for the entire Volkswagen Group and also the launch of a project on the citys urban mobility, as well as a SEAT museum in the Zona Francas Nave A122 site hosting all production and prototype models ever presented by SEAT together with some special or limited edition vehicles with historical value for the brand and the automotive history of Spain.
Among SEATs subsidiaries, the SEAT Deutschland GmbH subsidiary company is based in Morfelden-Walldorf, Germany, and apart from its commercial activities, has the further responsibility of operating SEATs electronic platform, the SEAT IT Services Network. In Wolfsburg, Germany, in the middle of a lake inside the Autostadt, the Volkswagen Groups corporate theme park, is SEATs thematic pavilion, one of the largest pavilions in the park.

2. Presence in different markets
In its 60 years, only a short period occurred from 1953 to 1965 when the firm produced its cars exclusively for the domestic Spanish market. In 1965 and in a rather symbolic move, the company exported some 150 units of its SEAT 600 model destined for Colombia by air freight for the first time, until 2 years later in 1967, SEAT reached a deal over the renegotiation of its licence contract with Fiat that allowed the Spanish firm to form an international distribution network for its cars and thereafter start its export operations to more than 12 different countries, entering the export market in 1969. Until the early 1980s, however, most SEAT exports were sold with Fiat badging. As a response to SEATs bid for independence, Fiat committed themselves to selling 200.000 SEAT-built cars a year from 1981, compared to 120.000 the year before. At the end of 1983, just after SEAT had won its legal battle with Fiat, a quarter of the production went to Egypt and Latin America. In Europe, they were represented in West Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Austria, and Greece. The UK, Ireland, and various Scandinavian markets were planned to be added in 1984. This was in spite of the company only being able to export the Ronda, with the Fura to follow. The exponential growth in exports in the 70s happened under the leadership of Juan Sanchez Cortes and the export director Jose Maria Garcia-Courel.
To date, the company has launched its own models in more than 70 countries worldwide in accordance with the development policies of the Volkswagen Group, with almost three-quarters of its annual production representing exports for the markets out of Spain. Its core market remains Europe, while the most successful market outside of Europe in terms of sales for SEAT is currently Mexico, where the company has dealer presence in 27 Mexican states.
In Europe, the brand has been launched in almost 40 countries across Northern, Western, Southern, and Eastern Europe. SEAT today also sells its cars in 11 countries in Asia, mostly in the Middle East and the Arabian peninsula, in 16 countries in Americas including North America, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, and finally Africa, mainly in North Africa. Some of its cars have been sold outside Europe, branded as Volkswagens, such as the SEAT Ibiza hatchback, known in South Africa as the Volkswagen Polo Playa, the SEAT Inca panel van as the Volkswagen Caddy, or the SEAT Cordoba, also known as the Volkswagen Polo Classic.
In the years to come, SEAT plans on expanding in even more markets, the most crucial of them all being China. While in the past, SEAT held talks with the Chinese car maker FAW to form an alliance for the local production of SEAT models in China-located plants, the present project to enter the Chinese market comprises in 2012 first to start selling its range with cars produced in SEATs Spain-located Martorell plant, followed later in a second phase by the local assembly of SEAT models in China.
SEATs further expansion plans in more markets outside of Europe have yet to be realised. In the past, the company was considering a possible launch in the United States, although this move has never been carried out. Rumours also of a SEAT model being sold as a Volkswagen in Canada and the United States to supplement the Volkswagens brand lineup there have occasionally circulated, but have always been unsubstantiated, and ultimately proven to be false. However, in 2019, the SEAT Ateca will be marketed in the United States and Canada as the Volkswagen Tarek to replace the Volkswagen Beetle.
In the past, other market areas where the brand was also present for a short time were Australia and New Zealand from 1995 to 1999, and South Africa from June 2006 to the end of 2008, but the brand was withdrawn from those markets due to Volkswagens decision citing that current and expected circumstances made the ongoing importation of a niche brand not viable. SEAT has been present in the Russian Federation since 2007, and in India, all Volkswagen Group brands are assembled or imported except SEAT. SEAT was reintroduced to the New Zealand market in 2017.

3.1. History S.E.A.T of 1907 Main article: Catalonia automobile
In 1907, at the Madrid Motor Show and under the Catalonia brand, the Spanish Society of Automobiles and Transportation, based in Barcelona, presented automobiles of the French brand Rebour.

3.2. History Establishment of SEAT
Spain is the worlds eighth-largest manufacturer of automobiles. Its car market stands among the largest in Europe. However, this has not always been the case; in the first half of the 20th century, Spains economy was relatively underdeveloped compared to most other Western European countries and had a limited automobile market. In this period, car production was limited and only a few low-volume local manufacturers catered mainly to the luxury end of the market, of which Hispano-Suiza was the most successful. Spains limited market for mass-produced vehicles was taken over by foreign companies operating through subsidiaries that either imported cars or assembled cars from imported parts, depriving the country of the technological know-how and large investments needed for mass production. The situation greatly deteriorated with the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939. Car demand collapsed, not only due to the greatly reduced purchasing power of Spaniards caused by war devastation, but also because the multinational subsidiaries either ceased operations or were severely stricken by the war and its aftermath.
The lack of interest shown by the foreign firms in the weakened post-civil war Spanish market opened an opportunity for local interests. SEAT dates its origins back to June 22, 1940 when the Spanish bank Banco Urquijo, with the support of a group of industrial companies, founded the Sociedad Iberica de Automoviles de Turismo S.I.A.T. with the goal of establishing Spains own mass production car maker. The initial Banco Urquijos project aimed at running the S.I.A.T. motor company as a fully private enterprise, but soon after 1941, the interventionist state holding company Instituto Nacional de Industria followed a decision taken by the Franco government on January 3, 1942. The goal for the new national car brand was not to be only another licensee car maker assembling foreign designs and parts in Spain, but of developing the whole manufacturing process from design to assembly within Spain. Because of the countrys lack of expertise in automotive mass-production development, finding a foreign partner that would contribute technically and with its own models in the early years in exchange for cash, shares, bonds and royalties became the course of action. With the rest of Europe having entered World War II, and Spain itself in ruins from its civil war, the project was delayed, but not abandoned due to its strategic importance.
SEAT under its current name was founded on May 9, 1950, under the denomination Sociedad Española de Automoviles de Turismo, S.A. S.E.A.T. by the Instituto Nacional de Industria INI with a starting capital of 600 million pesetas - equivalent today of almost 3.6 million euros - in the form of 600.000 shares of 1000 pesetas each, and in a time when the country was in need of remodelling the fundamental structures in its national economy, just after the end of World War II. The birth of SEAT came almost a year and a half after the Spanish government and six Spanish banks Banco Urquijo, Banco Español de Credito Banesto, Banco de Bilbao, Banco de Vizcaya, Banco Hispano-Americano, and Banco Central) had signed on October 26, 1948, an alliance contract with the Italian car manufacturer Fiat so as to form a partnership with a foreign ally to bring to life Spains major car manufacturer. The favoured bidders were Germanys Volkswagen and Italys Fiat. Fiats bid won for several reasons, including Fiats prominence in Spain and the fact that the company established the short-lived Fiat Hispania plant in Guadalajara, which was destroyed in the Spanish Civil War. Fiats collaboration with the French company Simca proved Fiats ability to manage complex international projects. Fiats experience in the semiprotected car market in Italy was seen as the most easily transferable to the one in Spain, both of which had, at the time, customers of low incomes and limited markets for cars, as well as similar road conditions. In Italy, Fiat dominated the market for vehicles under 12 horsepower, which would initially be the main market segment in Spain. The relative economic isolation of World War II damaged Italy and made Fiat interested in opportunities outside Italy, meaning that the negotiations with the Italian manufacturer could prosper more easily in favour of Spanish interests than with those from other countries. In 1947, the Banco Urquijo group had revived the S.I.A.T. project, and in the next year, the talks ended successfully with the signing of a three-part contract, with the understanding that the INI would hold a 51% controlling interest, as well as a ruling act in the new company preserving a focused approach of the enterprise in the national interest. The Banco Urquijo group, although a minority share holder, looked forward to assuming a leading role in the future as soon as the company was privatised. Partner carmaker Fiat was offered a 7% share in exchange of its technical assistance. This way, SEAT not only would be able to reinitiate the countrys economic recovery and as the largest employer in the 1960s and 70s, but would also contribute to the industrialisation of what was still a largely rural economy.
Though initial thoughts were of locating in less-developed inland cities such as Valladolid and Burgos, company decided the plant would be constructed in the duty-free zone area of the Port of Barcelona Zona Franca, which would offer better access to the Mediterranean shipping and the rest of Europe through rail and road connections across the nearby French border. Barcelona was, after all, a city with an industrial history that had built up expertise in complex industrial enterprises since the latter part of the 19th century; it was also the host location of many early historical Spanish carmakers, such as Hispano-Suiza and Elizalde, and subsidiaries of foreign carmakers, such as Ford Motor Iberica and General Motors Peninsular. Being an enterprise of vital interest for the national economy, as well as an investment opportunity for Fiats expansion plans through the Iberian peninsula, SEAT benefitted from state tariff and tax exemptions and technical assistance from its foreign partner Fiat. The companys first president was the industrialand aeronautical engineer, pilot, and photographer Jose Ortiz-Echague Puertas, who came from the Spanish aircraft manufacturer Construcciones Aeronauticas SA, where he had held the position of CEO, and who in 1976 was named the Honorary lifetime president of SEAT.

3.3. History Partnership with Fiat
The construction works for SEATs Zona Franca plant began on 1950, and the opening day came 3 years later on June 5, 1953, while in the meantime since 1951, the Spanish marque was starting preparations for setting up almost from scratch an entire supplier industry background. The first car in the marques history to be produced was a SEAT 1400 model that came off the production line on November 13, 1953, with licence plate B-87.223. In the following few months, the plants production output and workforce significantly increased together with the implementation of locally made components in the production process, to limit imports from one part and from another part to push to the development of the almost nonexistent Spanish supplier industry and meet SEATs assigned key role as the national carmaker in restoring the Spanish economy of post–World War II Spain. By 1954, the use of Spanish-made parts had risen to 93% of the total, and next year on May 5, 1955, the factory was officially opened. Nevertheless, the impact to the Spanish society could not be seen clear immediately, since the first model launched by SEAT was considered a luxury car, so was highly priced and still not affordable to the average Spanish consumer. Consequently, SEAT needed a second, more economical model to compete against simpler, inexpensive designs that appeared in the local market, like the Biscuter, which seemed to suit better to the unwealthy customers looking for a personal mean of transport in a suffering economy.
Until the time SEAT had the technical maturity and expertise to present its first self-developed model, the SEAT 1200 Sport in 1975, in its beginnings, the company had to manufacture either rebadged or restyled models borrowed from the range of its Italian partner Fiat Automobiles, or even redeveloped them according to the needs of its own range. However, the first example of a SEAT-exclusive derivative would arrive on September 1963 with the launch of the SEAT 800, a car developed in-house by SEAT with no equivalent model in Fiats range on the basis of the SEAT 600 as a stretched version with four doors.
In 1957 SEAT founded the SEAT Training Centre in the greater Zona Franca plant area, an institution covering the training of qualified personnel and serving the needs of the automobile industry in specialized technical human resources. In that same year, the historical SEAT 600 was launched, which proved to be the crucial car that literally motorized Spain, being the first car for many Spanish families and becoming a symbol of the Spanish miracle.
As the growth of the annual production was hitting one record after another due to the heavy demand, the economies of scale achieved permitted cutting costs and prices, subsequently renewing demand and boosting sales together with profits for SEAT. On June 29, 1964, the brand opened its new headquarters in Madrid, which hosted the firms sole - up to 1972 - general administration offices. SEATs plant manager was only in Barcelona until 1973, when SEAT settled another general director in Catalonia.
In 1967, 14 years after producing cars for the domestic market, SEATs success was signaled by its dominant position in Spain, ahead of its major competitors, i.e. FASA-Renault, Citroen-Hispania, Authi, and Barreiros, making SEAT the Spains largest automaker in sales numbers and a wholly localized production. In that year, an agreement between Fiat and the Spanish Ministry of Industry was reached so as to put an end in the restrictions over exporting SEAT cars from Spain, a term of the original licensee contract agreed with Fiat in 1948. In exchange for that, Fiat would increase its holding in the company from 7% to 36%, and at the same time the share held by the government holding agency would be reduced from a controlling 51% to 32%. The remaining 32% was taken by the six major Spanish banks, decreased from their previous 42% share split equally in 7% parts owned by every single one of them. Although not a majority owner, Fiat now was seen to control the business: the deal also included various undertakings by Fiat to help in the growth of SEAT, and with the development of a new model possibly the SEAT 133. On December 6, 1967, SEAT also founded its own customer financing company Financiera SEAT, S.A. Fiseat.
To be able to produce its own research projects independently, on November 16, 1970, SEAT came in accordance with Fiat so as to start building separate infrastructures aimed at developing new technologies. In 1972, the brand arranged some provisional facilities for the site of the future technical center in Martorell, and in 1973, began construction work; this goal would only till 1975 to be reached with the completion of the first phase in the construction of a facility designed by the Catalan architect Josep Antoni Coderch.
During the same period, the manufacturer continued to dominate the Spanish auto market, producing 282.698 cars - more than 58% of the Spanish production total - in 1971, despite disruption that year caused by strikes and a serious flood at the coastally sited Barcelona plant. However, with just 81 cars per 1000 people, Spanish car sales were seen as ripe for further growth, and SEAT faced the prospect of increased competition with other major manufacturers contemplating establishment or expansion of local production facilities in the still heavily protected Spanish car market.
In 1973, SEAT and Citroen-Hispania jointly contributed equal shares in founding the Vigo-located factory of Industrias Mecanicas de Galicia, SA Indugasa producing constant-velocity joints, essential components used in front-wheel drive cars, i.e. in a transmission layout the use of which was becoming more and more common at the time. This plant, which in the next years would supply parts not only to SEAT and Citroen-Hispania, but also to Ford España, was meant to be transferred later in 1986 to the multinational company GKN.
In May 1975, after a request from the Spanish state authorities to ensure the rescue of the jobs for the workers in the Authi-owned factories, SEAT moved on talks with the parent company British Leyland Motor Corporation BLMC of the bankrupt Authi to take over the brands operations in Spain, leaving aside GMs interest in it, which would otherwise open the path for the American automaker to enter the Spanish market, thus jeopardizing the relationship with Fiat. The talks ended soon on July 1975, when an agreement was announced between the two parties under which SEAT would acquire from BLMC the Authi brand along with its assets for 1.250 million pesetas. The imposed acquisition of the Landaben plant would also result in giving up SEATs plans to build a new facility in Saragossa. Although the Authi supplier factory in Manresa was transferred to a company called Cometsa for 150 million pesetas, the Landaben plant in Pamplona remained under SEATs ownership to continue production on February 1976 only of SEAT cars this time.
The 1970s were a decade of rising prosperity in Spain, which is reflected in the announcement in August 1976 that SEAT would commence local production of the Lancia Beta. Three years later, Beta production by SEAT indeed commenced at the companys recently acquired Pamplona plant, though only the coupe and HPE lift-back versions were included. The Spanish cars were fitted with a simplified suspension system and smaller engines than their Italian counterparts to qualify for a lower car tax rate.
In 1977, SEATs leasing company Liseat was founded, and in 1979, the Gearbox del Prat facility was set up as a specialised plant for the production of gearboxes, gear mechanisms, and differentials in El Prat del Llobregat near Barcelona.

3.4. History Dispute with Fiat
In the early 1980s, extensive discussions concerning funding and control took place between SEATs major shareholder, the Spanish government, and Fiat Automobiles; SEAT needed major capital investment, which Fiat was not prepared to contribute, partially due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and also due to the uncertainty for Fiats interests following the end of a protectionist policy against GM in Spain. The outcome, in 1982, was an end to the relationship with Fiat after nearly 30 years, a rather surprising decision in spite of the favourable perspectives for the Spanish economy, with Spain being in the anteroom of the European Economic Community since 1977.
The end of the co-operation with the Italian firm was marked by a change in SEATs logo in 1982, and the first car under the new SEAT logo without Fiat involvement appeared in the same year, the SEAT Ronda, styled by Rayton Fissore in collaboration with the technical centre in Martorell. The launch of this model, though, sparked a lawsuit from Fiat against SEAT, as the former claimed the car was too similar to a car in Fiats range, the Ritmo. In defence of SEAT, the then-president of SEAT, Juan Miguel Antoñanzas, showed a Ronda to the press with all the parts different from the Fiat Ritmo painted in bright yellow, to highlight the differences. The case was eventually taken to the Arbitration Chamber of Paris, which in 1983 declared that differences between both cars were important enough so as not to consider the Ronda as a rebadged Ritmo, ending the dispute in favour of SEAT. Rumour at the time had it that Fiat was angry because the Ronda restyling was in fact too close to their own planned restyling for the Fiat Ritmo, which they had to scrap.

3.5. History Volkswagen Group subsidiary
In 1982, Dr. Carl Horst Hahn, who had just assumed responsibility as the chairman of the Volkswagenwerk AG Volkswagen Group, examined the opportunity of approaching SEAT after Fiats withdrawal, in his plan to expand the Volkswagen Groups operations out of Germany and turning the German group into a global force. It also followed the precedent set by other global manufacturers such as Ford in Valencia and General Motors in Zaragoza in setting up manufacturing operations in Spain. However, the Spanish authorities had already started talks with other foreign firms, such as Toyota, Nissan and Mitsubishi to choose a strong partner for SEAT. Hahns interest soon resulted in an industrial and commercial cooperation, as well as a license agreement with SEAT on September 30, 1982, for the production in Spain of the Volkswagen Passat-Santana and Polo-Derby models in SEATs Zona Franca and Landaben factories, respectively - having thus as an effect on April 29, 1983, the ending of the SEAT Pandas production at the Landaben assembly lines due to need of adapting this plant to the production of the VW Polo - and eventually a partnership agreement was signed on June 16, 1983 between the two parties being represented by the president of SEAT Juan Miguel Antoñanzas and Carl Hahn on behalf of the Volkswagenwerk AG. SEAT also gained the rights to distribute Volkswagens in Spain.
SEAT launched its new Ibiza, a Giugiaro-styled hatchback, which made use of System Porsche engines and also featured underpinnings from the Fiat Ritmo/Strada, in 1984. It also formed the basis of the Malaga, a four-door family saloon. SEAT then began to expand into markets beyond Spains borders, including the United Kingdom, where it began selling cars in the autumn of 1985.
On June 18, 1986, after a purchase of the 51% majority stake of SEAT followed by the increase of its share up to 75% on December 23, the Volkswagen Group became the major shareholder of SEAT. On December 18, 1990, the Volkswagen Group acquired 99.99% ownership of the company, thus making SEAT the first non-German wholly owned subsidiary of the group. Fulfilling Hahns expectations, SEAT not only made a profit 2 years after Volkswagen bought a majority of its stock, but also provided a low-cost manufacturing outlet for other VW models, contributing up to 15.2% of the VW groups total output in 1989, as well as an opportunity to enter the relatively unexploited at that time Spanish market under the SEAT, VW, and Audi names.
The gathering of the brands main infrastructures in the greater Martorell plant area has taken place in a long process beginning back in 1975 with the opening of the SEAT technical centre, but only in 1989 was a decision made to start building a new main assembly facility next to the technical centre in Martorell, replacing the old one in Zona Franca. In that same year, the translocation of SEATs Madrid administration offices to Barcelona began with the sale of two of the brands assets in La Castellana to be completed in 1991 with the definitive installation of SEATs headquarters in the Catalonia region.
The centralisation of the management, design, research, and production facilities localized around the plant site was meant to serve the aim of optimising the development in of new models. On February 22, 1993, King Juan Carlos of Spain and the newly elected since January 1, 1993 chairman of the Volkswagen Group Dr. Ferdinand Piech inaugurated the Martorell plant, one of the most modern and efficient car plants in Europe using the just-in-time process with its suppliers site located only 2.5 km away. The first cars that rolled out of the Martorell plant lines were the SEAT Ibiza Mk2 and its saloon version, the SEAT Cordoba Mk1. The new Ibiza was a huge success for SEAT, greatly expanding its market share, particularly on export markets.
The original planning in October 1993 to close the emblematic Zona Franca assembly plant as soon as the production of vehicles could be transferred to the more efficient Martorell plant was overturned after an arrangement between the Spanish authorities and the Volkswagen Group, according to which, the Zona Franca site would continue its operations, but would be gradually turned into a site with an auxiliary role in the production process. Meanwhile, on December 23, 1993, the Fabrica Navarra de Automoviles, S.A. was founded as a new company to hold the management of the Landaben factory, separating any ties to SEAT in production matters, with its shares being transferred to Volkswagen on June 1994 over which, however, SEAT would regain ownership four years later in 1998.
In 1994, the design center in Sitges - the Spanish coastal town south of Barcelona - and the suppliers park in Zona Franca were also inaugurated, and in winter of the same year, SEATs financing and leasing companies - Fiseat and Liseat - were sold to Volkswagen Financial Services AG. During 1994, SEAT, in collaboration with Suzuki, manufactured a five-door prototype model of a city car, internally named as Rose, aiming to replace with it the Marbella in its range, but this model never made it through to production.
The first time a SEAT model was manufactured out of Spain was in 1996, with the production of the SEAT Alhambra Mk1 in the Palmela AutoEuropa plant in Portugal. Also in January 1997, a non-Spanish descendant, the Belgian Pierre-Alain de Smedt, was appointed SEATs chairman for the first time. The SEAT Arosa, a three-door city hatchback, was launched in 1997, effectively replacing the Marbella, SEATs version of the Fiat Panda, which had been in production since the early 1980s.
On April 7, 1998, the Zona Franca plant marked the end in the production lifecycle of the Marbella model, signaling an historical moment for SEAT with the end of vehicle production in SEATs oldest factory, opened in 1953; ever since, the Zona Franca plant has produced components and parts to be assembled in other locations. It also signaled the demise of SEATs last Fiat-based model.
In March 1999 at the Geneva Motor Show, SEAT presented a modern, stylised logo, more rounded compared to the last one and with the use of the silver colour on a red background, instead of the previous blue, symbolising respectively the rational and the emotional. This came shortly after the launch of the second-generation Toledo, and shortly before the launch of the Toledo-based Leon hatchback.
The auto emocion slogan was presented in September 2000, reflecting the brands new youthful and sporty corporate identity, while SEAT Sport, apart from its motorsport activities, would undertake the responsibility of developing SEATs high-performance vehicles.
On July 1, 2000, Dr. Bernd Peter Pischetsrieder, the former CEO of BMW, was appointed to head SEAT. In the spring of 2002, as Pischetsrieder was commissioned to chair the entire Volkswagen Group, he gave way to his German compatriot Andreas Schleef on March 7, 2002.
From 2002 to 2007, SEAT formed part of the Audi Brand Group, the Volkswagen Groups automotive subdivision, consisted of Audi, SEAT and Lamborghini, that was focused on more sporty values, with the marques product vehicles and performance being under the responsibility of the Audi brand.
In 2006, the new SEAT corporate head office was opened in Martorell and the Martorell SEAT Design Centre superseded the Volkswagen Group Design Centre Europe at Sitges, which previously hosted the design facility jointly owned by SEAT, Volkswagen, and Audi, as on February 23 of the same year, an agreement over the transfer of the installations of the latter to the City of Sitges was closed, with the Martorells Design Centre official opening eventually taking place on December 30, 2007.
On January 12, 2007, the inauguration of the building of the SEAT Service Centre next to the southern entrance of the Martorell factory was held, the department focusing on technical support, after-sales and marketing purposes, and covering the feedback and the relationship of the brand with the customers and its worldwide network. In January 2007, operation of the SEAT Prototypes Centre of Development located in the heart of the Martorell industrial complex began, a facility inaugurated on July 16 of the same year, bringing together activities related to the virtual and physical preproduction processes of new models, thus shortening development times for prototypes and preproduction vehicles, as well as saving costs with the use of modern technologies such as virtual simulation.

4. Motorsport
SEATs involvement in motorsports began in the 1970s with the brands contribution to the national formula races in Spain, and by the end of the same decade, the start of its involvement in rallies. In 1971, the Special Vehicles department was formed with the mission to enforce the brands participation in rally championships, resulting in 11 titles between 1979 and 1983. The year 1985 was when SEAT Sport was founded as a separate motorsport division and especially since the Volkswagen Group takeover in 1986, SEAT has been increasing even more its presence in the motorsport world, mainly down to VWs plan on focusing the SEAT brand as sporty to appeal particularly to the younger generation of drivers. The results of this effort have been SEATs most prestigious titles in FIA championships, three conquests with the SEAT Ibiza Kit-Car in the FIA 2L World Rally Championship WRC 1996, 1997, 1998, and two times with the SEAT Leon in the FIA World Touring Car Championship) 2008, 2009.

4.1. Motorsport Rallying
SEATs first serious attempt at a World Rally Championship WRC was in the 1977 season, when SEAT took part with its SEAT 1430/124D Especial 1800 race car, and in its debut rallying event at the Montecarlo Rally, the SEAT team finished in the third and fourth places with the official 1430-1800 cars being driven by Antonio Zanini and Salvador Cañellas. In recent years, the consignment was placed on the small SEAT Ibiza, a 1.6-L, normally aspirated, front wheel-drive car with its roots in the Volkswagen Polo. The Ibiza allowed the company to further evolve its rallying experience, and was officially engaged in some European national championships. The years went by until a 2-L version of the Ibiza was homologated as a kit car, and extra wide tracks, larger wheels, brakes, etc., were fitted to it as the Federation Internationale de lAutomobile FIA kit-car regulations allow. With these attributes, the car succeeded three times the 2-L World Champion 96, 97, 98, proving its maker had accumulated enough experience, and budget, to take a chance at the reign category, the World Rally Car class of rallying cars.
SEATs three conquests of the FIA 2L WRC title, and the sports popularity in Spain, probably convinced Volkswagen Group management to go further and allow the SEAT Sport department a chance to reach its goal in the top class WRC category. This situation came to an end in September 2000, when the companys German upper management revoked its decision forcing SEAT Sport to retire from the World Rally Championship.
SEATs project to build a WRC-spec car was officially announced during the 1997 San Remo rally. It was in 1998 that the first evolution of the SEAT Cordoba WRC car was presented at the Porto Motor Show and then first enrolled by the company to compete at the highest level of WRC racing. The Cordoba was based on the family saloon of the same name but was, naturally, a WRC class car equipped with an inline-four turbocharged petrol engine, permanent four-wheel drive, and active differentials involved in its transmission. The Cordoba WRC made its debut at the 1998 Rally of Finland, while a further development on the race car was incarnated on the SEAT Cordoba WRC E2 car which was presented at the Barcelona Motor Show in 1999. However, the short wheelbase and high-mounted engine compared to its rivals worked against the Cordoba, and results werent top competing. Despite hiring ex-WRC champion Didier Auriol, and a new evolution of the car i.e. the SEAT Cordoba WRC E3, SEAT pulled out of international rallying at the end of 2000.

4.2. Motorsport Touring cars
In 2002, SEAT announced a one-make championship for the new SEAT Leon Cupra R, the SEAT Leon Supercopa.
In 2004, SEAT with Ray Mallock Ltd. RML entered the British Touring Car Championship, running two SEAT Toledo Cupra for former-BTCC Champion Jason Plato, and 2003 Leon UK Champion, Rob Huff. In 2005, Huff left to join Chevrolet run by RML in the World Touring Car Championship WTCC), and he was replaced by 2004 Leon Champion James Pickford, and Luke Hines as SEAT expanded to three cars, now run by Northern South. 2006 saw the Toledo replaced by the new Leon, and Darren Turner joined the team with James Thompson when his WTCC commitments allowed. 2007 was SEATs best year in BTCC, as Plato was locked in a season-long battle with Fabrizio Giovanardi, which came down to the final race of the season, but just missed out on the title.
Since 2005, SEAT has also competed in the World Touring Car Championship, with its first best season being 2007, where a failed water pump robbed Yvan Muller of certain victory at the final meeting in Macau. SEAT became the first team to run a TDI in the WTCC and this gave them a dominant 2008 World Touring Car Championship season, with Yvan Muller winning the drivers championship. French racing team Oreca cooperates with the WTCC team. SEATs UK team followed suit in the 2008 BTCC. The BTCC team was sponsored by Holiday Inn.
In 2007, SEAT – with the Leon Mk2 TDI at the Motorsport Arena Oschersleben in Germany – became the first manufacturer to win a round of the World Touring Car Championship WTCC series in a diesel car, only a month after announcing it will enter the FIA World Touring Car Championship with the Leon TDI. SEATs success with the Leon TDI was continued, and resulted in winning consecutively 2008 World Touring Car Championship and 2009 World Touring Car Championship both titles for drivers as well as for manufacturers.
In September 2008, SEAT UK announced that it was to withdraw from all motor sport activity in the UK at the end of the season. The SEAT Cupra Championship and the SEAT BTCC campaign are to end at Brands Hatch on 21 September. BTCC drivers Jason Plato and Darren Turner have been left without drives for 2009. But Plato will drive for Silverline Chevrolet.
At the opening of the 2009 WTCC, SEAT placed 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th in both races in Brazil. At the second meeting of the WTCC in Mexico, the SEAT team placed 1st, 4th, 6th, 7th and 11th in the first race. The second race they placed 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 8th. While SEAT may have withdrawn from the BTCC, they are showing impressive results in the WTCC.

4.3. Motorsport Grand tourer cars
In 2003 the SEAT Sport division presented at the Barcelona Motor Show first as a concept car and later the final version of the SEAT Cupra GT race car, which was produced in limited series on customer demand addressed to expertised individuals and racing teams willing to take part in race events.
The Cupra GT was chosen as a GT race car from racing teams, like the Sunred Engineering SunRED team, making its debut in 2004 in the Spanish GT Championship, and took part in several Grand tourer circuits not only in Spain but also run in tracks abroad like those of Monza and Magny-Cours.

4.4. Motorsport Formula
In 1970 SEAT set up the Formula Nacional series in Spain, a year later to be known as Formula 1430. The single seater formula cars, which took part driven by young Spanish drivers, were equipped under support from SEAT with engines of the 1430 model and 6700 gearboxes. The first race of the Formula Nacional series took place at the Jarama circuit in Madrid.

5. Nomenclature
SEATs corporate tradition, as a Volkswagen Group subsidiary, dictates that the nomenclature of its model range be inspired by Spanish culture. Thus, a large number of SEATs production models have been named after places in Spain. However, there have been several exceptions: for example, the name for the SEAT Exeo - added to the brands range in 2008 - was influenced from the Latin word exire which means "to go beyond".
Following the marques naming trend with production models, many of SEATs concept cars adopted names inspired by either Hispanic dances, abbreviations related to existing production models, or names reminiscent of SEATs historic sporting roots e.g. Formula, Cupra GT.
Moreover, in recent years, special versions of the production models specific ranges have been added, such as the SC for SportCoupe edition, or ST for SportTourer differentiating the three-door and the estate versions from the standard four- and five-door ones, while the Cupra for Cup Racing edition and FR for Formula Racing has been used for the high-performance models in the range, signalising SEATs positioning as a sport-oriented brand involved in racing.
Historic references can be found with the iconic Bocanegra name, meaning "black mouth" in Spanish, which accompanies the Ibiza model and has its origins in the SEAT 1200 Sport, the original SEAT Bocanegra due to its black-painted fascia in the front.

6. Sub-ranges Ecomotive range
Almost every model in SEATs range has an Ecomotive derivative version, which in comparison to the standard version has a more eco-friendly tuning. Reduction of weight, low-resistance tyres, new aerodynamics, tweaks in the suspension, as well as changes made to the engines electronic management software with an additional implementation of a maintenance-free Diesel Particle Filter DPF for the diesel engines, also updates in the gearbox and the gear ratios with a gearshift indicator in the dash panel reminding when it is the proper time to change gears, combined with an engine Start/Stop system and an Energy Recuperation system are some of the modifications adopted in the Ecomotive range in order to cut down both fuel consumption and emissions. The result is a range with some of the cleanest models featuring an improvement not only in gas and particles emissions but also in fuel economy, without big compromise in the vehicles dynamic performance or practicality; for example the SEAT Ibiza Ecomotive 1.4 TDI has CO 2 emissions coming up at 98 g/km and still it comes even faster from 0 to 100 km/h than the standard version featuring a 5-door body and air-conditioning, while the SEAT Leon Ecomotives CO 2 emissions are among the lowest in its segment too and raise up to 99 g/km. Up to the present, the Ecomotive range has been renowned in many occasions. In 2008, the Ibiza Ecomotive has been declared on top of the Verkehrs-Club Deutschlands 2008/2009 list in the "environmentally beneficial vehicle" category and in the 10th Eco Tour not only it has won in the small diesel class but also proved to be the overall winner of all categories. In that specific year the SEAT Ibiza Ecomotive was also awarded with the Ecobest 2008 award by the Autobest organisation and the German newspaper Bild am Sonntag named it the most economic car of its class in the world. The year 2009 has been the one when once more the Ibiza Ecomotive was nominated for the Green Steering wheel award in Switzerland, and has set two consecutive times a new world record on fuel saving with a single tank, certified by the IPMC International Police Motor Corporation: the first when the Austrian Gerhard Plattner drove from Martorell Spain to Gottingen Germany with an average fuel consumption of 2.9 l/100 km and the second time in his route from Cieszyn Poland to Frankfurt Germany having achieved the world record in fuel consumption of 2.34 l/100 km or 100 mpg U.S. covering a distance of 1.910 km on a single tank.
MultiFuel range
The MultiFuel range consists in the introduction of the flexible-fuel vehicle bio-ethanol technology in selected SEAT models - i.e., the SEAT Leon MultiFuel, the SEAT Altea MultiFuel and the SEAT Altea XL MultiFuel - with the implementation of the 1.6 MPI MultiFuel E85 motor, capable of producing exactly the same horsepower 102 bhp just like the relevant pure petrol version of the engine.

7. Sales and production figures
Since its beginnings in 1953, more than 16 million SEAT cars have been produced with the most successful product in the range being the SEAT Ibiza, a model which has sold over 4 million units in its four generations up to the present.
In the year 2009, the total annual retail sales number of SEAT cars was 336.683 vehicles, while the annual production of vehicles under the SEAT brand came up to 307.502 units 301.287 made in SEATs Martorell plant and 6.215 in other Volkswagen groups factories.
The total production per year of SEAT cars, manufactured in SEAT and other Volkswagen groups plants, is shown in the following table not comprising cars of other Volkswagen groups brands, produced in SEAT-owned facilities:

7.1. Sales and production figures Rebadges
Under Volkswagen Groups ownership, numerous SEAT models have been rebadged under other brands, either inside the Volkswagen Groups portfolio or out of it.
In particular some examples, concerning the rebadges deriving from SEAT models and being carried out under other Volkswagen Groups brands, are the SEAT Ibiza Mk2 which has been rebadged under the VW brand as the VW Polo Playa, the SEAT Cordoba Mk1 rebadged as the VW Polo Classic - FAW-VW City-Golf - VW Derby, the SEAT Arosa as the VW Lupo, and the SEAT Inca as the VW Caddy.
Further rebadges have come under non Volkswagen Group brand ranges and some notable examples are the SEAT Ibiza Mk1 which has been rebadged as the Nanjing Yuejin Eagle NJ6400-Unique NJ6400-Soyat NJ7150-Soyat Unique NJ1020, and the SEAT Toledo Mk1 as the Chery A11-Fulwin-Fengyun-Windcloud - Chery A15-A168-Amulet-Cowin-Qiyun-Flagcloud - Vortex Corda.
On the other hand, several SEAT models have derived as rebadges coming from other Volkswagen Groups brands such as the SEAT Alhambra Mk1 and Mk2 respectively from the VW Sharan Mk1 and Mk2 the first generation resulting after a joint venture of the Volkswagen Group together with Ford and the SEAT Exeo from the Audi A4 B7.

7.2. Sales and production figures Tuning companies
Several tuning companies have produced modified or high-performance versions of various SEAT models, some significant examples among those being Abt Sportsline, Je Design, MTM, Abarth, Emelba, Annibal, etc.

7.3. Sales and production figures Current models
Ibiza Mk5 2017–present
Ateca 2016–present
Mii 2011–present
Leon Mk3 2013–present
Tarraco 2019–present
Alhambra Mk3 2010–present
Arona 2017–present

7.4. Sales and production figures Future models
According to the president of SEAT, James Muir, in an interview with the Spanish daily newspaper El Mundo in October 2010,
SEAT scheduling comprises the following future models in the near future:
SEAT Exeo Mk2 or its replacement based on I BL could be named B o L ero
There is still thinking of a compact MPV car successor to the Altea, and a SUV model on the basis of the SEAT IBX concept car. There will be a new SUV model, in addition to the Ateca, released during 2018, with SEAT giving the public the opportunity to come up with a suitable name for it on social media by using the hashtag #SEATSeekingName.

8.1. Company profile Leadership
Today as a Volkswagen Group subsidiary, SEATs leading people are appointed after approval from the groups supervisory board.

8.2. Company profile Environmental policy Electric and hybrid technology development
Since the early 1990s, SEAT has developed and presented several prototypes with either full electric or hybrid powertrain, including the SEAT Toledo Mk1 electric model 1992, the SEAT Ibiza Mk2 electric car 1993, the SEAT Inca electric van 1995, the SEAT Leon Mk2 Twin drive 2009, the SEAT IBE concept 2010 and the SEAT IBX concept SUV 2011 hybrid cars.
SEAT al Sol project
The SEAT al Sol project consists in the integration of use of solar power through a system of photovoltaic panels generating electricity in SEATs factory in Martorell. The project is going to be carried through in collaboration with GA-Solar from the beginnings of 2010, covering a factory area of 320.000 m2 with a system of more than 10 MW of photovoltaic panels. This installation is expected to produce more than 13 million kwh of electricity annually, aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions by over 6.200 tonnes of CO 2 per year.
Cenit verde project
The Cenit VERDE initiative is a research project backed by the CENIT the National Strategic Consortia for Technical Research programme and supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, in which SEAT plays a key role. Aiming at developing technologies, components and infrastructure for hybrid and electrically powered cars in Spain, this programme brings together 16 technology companies and 16 universities and research establishments under the CTM coordination Centre Tecnologic in Manresa and the support of the CDTI Centre for Industrial Technological Development, an organization pertaining to the Ministry of Science and Innovation.
In January 2010, the Cenit Verde association made its opening meeting at SEATs Technical Centre in Martorell.
As part of its contribution SEAT comes in with its own Verde pre-project, including the technology implemented in the plug-in hybrid SEAT Leon Twin drive as well as in the SEAT IBE concept zero emissions electric vehicle presented in the 2010 Geneva motor show.
SEAT Autometro project
The SEAT Autometro project comprises the construction and management of a rail link service between SEATs Martorell complex and the Port of Barcelona, in the aim of transport of vehicles and components. Autometro is the joint-venture company which operates the rail, having Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya FGC local rail company, COMSA Rail Transport and Pecovasa as its shareholders. The company was founded in November 2005 almost five months after an initial agreement was signed between the Catalan government Generalitat, the Barcelona Port Authority and SEAT. Due to this project, a branch connecting the Martorell plant with the FGC Llobregat-Anoia main rail line had to be constructed, as well as further adaptations to the transport network and the host infrastructures in the Port of Barcelona had to be made. The budget for the project comes up to 6.8 million euro, while SEAT on its part also assumes the operational transport costs. The use of this rail link since January 18, 2008, instead of road transport, has helped not only in terms of cost effectiveness and road safety but also in the reduction of both road congestion and greenhouse gas emissions. Over the whole Autometro project awards have been given for the best logistics idea at the 2007 International Logistics Fair SIL and specifically to SEAT as the 2008 Distinguished loader by the Loaders Association of the Port of Barcelona.

8.3. Company profile Sponsorship
SEAT has been a sponsor in major sports events, such as:
Barcelona 1992 Olympic Games
Copa del Rey
UEFA Europa League 2009–2012
Eintracht Braunschweig
Davis Cup World Group Final
Red Bull Air Race World Championship
The company was one of the prime sponsors of Tunisias national basketball team at the 2015 FIBA Africa Championship where the companys logo was regularly displayed e.g. on the teams shorts.
Further, SEAT is a strong supporter of artists, like Shakira, Armin van Buuren, David Guetta etc.

9. Awards
Over the years the SEAT marque has been honoured with several awards, such as
The Landaben plant, 100% owned by SEAT, S.A. by that time, received in 1986 the World quality award Q-86
The Barcelona Gearbox del Prat plant, 100% owned by SEAT, S.A., received in 2009 the Volkswagen Excellence award for its high-quality manufacturing process and product
AvD Innovationspreis 2006 award for technological innovations developed at the SEAT Technical Centre in Martorell, from the German automobile club Automobilclub von Deutschland AvD
The Martorell plant, 100% owned by SEAT, S.A., received in 1998 the Best factory of the VW Group in the first quarter award
Best project in the use of an electronic signature in the private sector in 2008 for SEATs electronic invoicing system, by the Catalan Certification Agency CATCert
Best logistics initiative 2007 award for the SEAT-Autometro project, by the International Logistics Salon
In the 2007 Barcelona International motor show SEAT received two awards for the best technological innovations in the automotive sector, for the LED modules implementation in headlights and the project of virtual fabrication and applied ergonomics
Port of Barcelonas Distinguished Loader prize in 2008, by the Port of Barcelonas Loaders Association
The SEAT brand itself in 2009 has been named Most Improved Used Car Brand of the decade in the CAP Used Car of the Decade Awards

SEAT Leon

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SEAT Ibiza

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SEAT Ateca

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SEAT Altea

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SEAT 1200 Sport

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SEAT Alhambra

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SEAT Arosa

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