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1645 in science

First published map of the Moon produced by Michael Florent van Langren. A version of the law of gravitation is suggested by Ismael Bullialdus in his Astronomia philolaica. The Solar cycle enters the 70-year Maunder Minimum.

1647 in science

January 17 – Elisabeth Hevelius, Danzig astronomer died 1693 March 20 – Jean de Hautefeuille, French inventor died 1724 April 2 – Maria Sybilla Merian, German lepidopterist died 1717 August 22 – Denis Papin, French physicist died c. 1712 December ...

1648 in science

September 19 – Blaise Pascals brother-in-law, Florin Perier, demonstrates in an ascent of the Puy-de-Dome that atmospheric pressure varies with height.

1651 in science

Jean Pecquet publishes Experimenta nova anatomica which includes his findings on the lymphatic system. William Harvey describes organ formation in the developing embryo in De Generatione.

1652 in science

Elias Ashmole publishes his anthology of English alchemical literature, Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum. Gerard Boates Natural History of Ireland is published posthumously. Nicholas Culpeper publishes his herbal, The English Physitian, or, An astro ...

1653 in science

Blaise Pascal publishes his Traite du triangle arithmetique in which he describes a convenient tabular presentation for binomial coefficients, now called Pascals triangle.

1655 in science

Thomas Muffets Healths Improvement, or, Rules comprising and discovering the nature, method, and manner of preparing all sorts of food used in this nation is published posthumously in England, containing, inter alia, descriptions of a wide range ...

1656 in science

Publication in Vienna of Michal Boyms Flora Sinensis, the first book that uses the name "Flora" in this meaning, a book covering the plant world of a region.

1658 in science

March 5 – Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, French explorer died 1730 April 2 - Pierre Pomet, French pharmacist died 1699 unknown date – Nicolas Andry, French physician died 1742

1659 in science

Swiss mathematician Johann Rahn publishes Teutsche Algebra containing the first printed use of the mathematical symbols for division the obelus, ÷ and "therefore" ∴. First known use of the term Abscissa, by Stefano degli Angeli.

1661 in science

December 18 – Christopher Polhem, Swedish scientist and inventor died 1751 Guillaume François Antoine, Marquis de lHopital, French mathematician died 1704 approx. date – Alida Withoos, Dutch botanical artist died 1730 May 3 – Antonio Vallisneri, ...

1663 in science

March 4 – The Prince Edward Islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean are discovered by Barent Barentszoon Lam of the Dutch ship Maerseveen and named Dina Prince Edward and Maerseveen Marion.

1666 in science

Samuel Morland produces several designs of pocket calculating machine and also publishes A New Method of Cryptography. Isaac Newton develops differential calculus.

1668 in science

Francesco Redi publishes Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione deglInsetti "Experiments on the Generation of Insects", disproving theories of the spontaneous generation of maggots in putrefying matter.

1672 in science

Giovanni Cassini discovers Rhea, a satellite of Saturn. Sir Isaac Newton reads his first Optiks paper before the Royal Society of London. John Flamsteed determines the solar parallax from observations of Mars.

1673 in science

Samuel Morland publishes A Perpetual Almanack and Several Useful Tables. John Kersey begins publication of The Elements of that Mathematical Art Commonly Called Algebra.

1676 in science

December 7 – Danish astronomer Ole Romer measures the speed of light by observing the eclipses of Jupiters moons, obtaining a speed of 140.000 miles per second approximately 25% too slow. Summer – The Royal Greenwich Observatory, designed by Chri ...

1677 in science

Publication of Cockers Arithmetick: Being a Plain and Familiar Method Suitable to the Meanest Capacity for the Full Understanding of That Incomparable Art, As It Is Now Taught by the Ablest School-Masters in City and Country, attributed to Edward ...

1678 in science

Robert Hooke discovers the fundamental law of elasticity when he finds that the stress force exerted is proportional to the strain elongation produced. Christiaan Huygens publishes his Traite de la Lumiere/Treatise on Light, which states his prin ...

1682 in science

English naval surgeon James Yonge 1646–1721 publishes Wounds of the Brain Proved Curable, probably the first monograph in English on surgery of the head.

1684 in science

December 10 – Edmond Halley presents the paper De motu corporum in gyrum, containing Isaac Newtons derivation of Keplers laws of planetary motion incorporating inverse-square force from his theory of gravity, to the Royal Society in London.

1686 in science

John Ray begins publication of his Historia Plantarum, including the first biological definition of the term species ; also his edition of Francis Willughbys Historia Piscum.

1687 in science

Dutch physician Willem ten Rhijne publishes Verhandelinge van de Asiatise Melaatsheid na een naaukeuriger ondersoek ten dienste van het gemeen in Amsterdam, explaining Asian leprosy to the West.

1691 in science

Anton Nucks Adenographia curiosa et uteri foeminei anatome nova is published at Leiden, including a description of the canal of Nuck and a demonstration that the embryo is derived from the ovary and not the sperm.

1692 in science

The tractrix, sometimes called a tractory or equitangential curve, is first studied by Christiaan Huygens, who gives it its name. John Arbuthnot publishes Of the Laws of Chance translated from Huygens De ratiociniis in ludo aleae, the first work ...

1693 in science

Edmond Halley publishes an article in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society on life annuities featuring a life table constructed on the basis of statistics from Breslau provided by Caspar Neumann.

1696 in science

Jakob Bernoulli and Johann Bernoulli solve the brachistochrone curve problem, the first result in the calculus of variations. Guillaume de lHopital publishes Analyse des Infiniment Petits pour lIntelligence des Lignes Courbes, the first textbook ...

1699 in science

English physician Edward Tyson publishes Orang-Outang, sive Homo Sylvestris: or, the Anatomy of a Pygmie Compared with that of a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man, a pioneering work of comparative anatomy.

1700 in science

January 26 – At approximately 9 p.m., the Cascadia earthquake occurred with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.7–9.2. This megathrust earthquake ruptured about 1.000 kilometers 620 miles of the Cascadia Subduction Zone and caused a tsunami that s ...

1701 in science

Edmond Halleys General Chart of the Variation of the Compass is first published, the first to show magnetic declination in the Atlantic Ocean and the first on which isogonic, or Halleyan, lines appear.

1703 in science

Charles Plumiers Nova plantarum Americanarum genera begins publication in Paris. This includes descriptions of Fuchsia, discovered by him on Hispaniola, and naming of the genus Magnolia, applied to species from Martinique.

1704 in science

Pierre Varignon invents the U-tube manometer, a device capable of measuring rarefaction in gases. Isaac Newton releases a record of experiments and the deductions made from them in Opticks, a major contribution in study of optics and refraction o ...

1707 in science

John Floyer, in The Physicians Pulse Watch, introduces counting of pulse rate during one minute. Giovanni Maria Lancisi publishes De Subitaneis Mortibus On Sudden Death, an early work in cardiology. Georg Ernst Stahl publishes Theoria medica vera ...

1708 in science

Calcareous hard-paste porcelain is produced at Dresden in Saxony by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus and developed after his death October by Johann Friedrich Bottger.

1709 in science

Francis Hauksbee publishes Physico-Mechanical Experiments on Various Subjects, summarizing the results of his many experiments with electricity and other topics.

1710 in science

Alexis Littre, in his treatise Diverses observations anatomiques, is the first physician to suggest the possibility of performing a lumbar colostomy for an obstruction of the colon. Stephen Hales makes the first experimental measurement of the ca ...

1712 in science

John Flamsteeds Historia Coelestis is first published, against his will and without credit by Isaac Newton and Edmond Halley with the influence of John Arbuthnot.

1713 in science

September 9 – Nicolas Bernoulli first describes the St. Petersburg paradox in a letter to Pierre Raymond de Montmort. November 13 – James Waldegrave provides the first known minimax mixed strategy solution to a two-person game, in a letter to de ...

1714 in science

May – Brook Taylor publishes a paper, written in 1708, in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society which describes his solution to the center of oscillation problem. Gottfried Leibniz discusses the harmonic triangle. March – Roger Cote ...

1715 in science

May 3 – Total solar eclipse across southern England, Sweden and Finland last total eclipse visible in London for almost 900 years. Edmond Halley suggests that nebulae are clouds of interstellar gas. Publication in London of David Gregorys The ele ...

1716 in science

Johann von Lowenstern-Kunckel publishes his handbook of experimental chemistry, Collegium physico-chymicum experimentale, oder, Laboratorium chymicum, in Germany.

1717 in science

Thomas Fairchild, a nurseryman at Hoxton in the East End of London, becomes the first person to produce a successful scientific plant hybrid, Dianthus Caryophyllus barbatus, known as "Fairchilds Mule". James Petiver publishes Papilionum Brittania ...

1718 in science

Abraham de Moivre publishes The Doctrine of Chances: a method of calculating the probabilities of events in play in English, which goes through several editions.

1719 in science

October 20 – Gottfried Achenwall, German statistician died 1772 September 27 – Abraham Gotthelf Kastner, German mathematician died 1800 January 23 – John Landen, English mathematician died 1790 August 4 – Johann Gottlob Lehmann, German geologist ...

1721 in science

The use of ether is developed as a pain-killer. Thomas Guy founds Guys Hospital in London to treat "incurables" discharged from St Thomas. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu introduces the Ottoman Turkish method of inoculation against smallpox – variolati ...

1722 in science

Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur publishes his work on metallurgy, LArte de convertir le fer forge en acier, which describes how to convert iron into steel.

1724 in science

Daniel Bernoulli expresses the numbers of the Fibonacci sequence in terms of the golden ratio. Isaac Watts publishes Logic, or The Right Use of Reason in the Enquiry After Truth With a Variety of Rules to Guard Against Error in the Affairs of Rel ...

1725 in science

James Bradley first observes stellar aberration. John Flamsteeds Historia Coelestis Britannica is published posthumously in a version containing Flamsteeds revisions, thanks largely to the efforts of his widow, Margaret, and former assistants Abr ...

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